Interior Designer

? “Whether they are creating a romantic atmosphere for a fine restaurant or designing a professional office environment, interior designers work to meet the functional and aesthetic needs of their clients. ” Designers research the needs and requirements of their clients and then draw diagrams that outline those needs. They are responsible for selecting color schemes, materials, and finishes to represent the design their clients want. They must also make sure to meet the safety requirements. Interior designers are hired for a variety of reasons depending on the space being designed.

Obviously, people want to be cozy and comfortable in their own homes and often don’t have the time, energy, or creativity to do the task themselves. They will hire a designer to take their ideas and create the spaces to their liking. Businesses often hire designers to create a space that is most effective in boosting office productivity. They may also be interested in attracting wealthy clients. Some places, such as hospitals, desire to create spaces that are both relaxing and non-threatening. Other areas, such as shopping malls, are concerned with creating a mood that entices people to linger and spend their money.

Students interested in pursuing a career in interior design should begin their preparation in high school. These students should take classes such as art and design. It is also helpful to have a background in a foreign language and art history. Another helpful class to take in high school is speech, as it is necessary to be able to express yourself clearly when presenting your design ideas. Some other related classes to consider are computer graphics and business education. Besides preparing in the classroom, high school students can gain valuable experience through working in a design store or a department store that sells home furnishings.

Spending time with individuals who make their living in design is a great way to help you decide if this is the career path for you. “While it might be assumed that a highly creative person can virtually walk into the interior design field without experience, that is rarely, if ever, the case. ” A college education is necessary for even entry-level positions. Programs offered usually take two to four years to complete. Any program less than four years will result in an associate degree and usually would qualify someone to begin as an assistant.

A four-year bachelor’s degree in interior design will qualify one to begin in a formal apprenticeship program. In order to be accepted into a degree program, students are often required to submit sketches and other examples of their artistic ability. It is a good idea to begin a portfolio of your artwork and creative designs as soon as possible. Once accepted into a program, students can expect to take classes such as drawing, perspective, spatial planning, color and fabrics, furniture design, architecture, ergonomics, ethics, and psychology.

There are various degrees available in the interior design field depending on the direction you are planning to go. A bachelor of science degree in interior design will qualify an individual for entry-level positions in residential and commercial design, space-planning, computer-aided drafting, and showroom management. An interior design master’s degree will focus more on researching the history of decorative art as well as environmental design. With a master’s degree, you would have more of an opportunity to manage a design team and would be better prepared to run your own design firm.

While design students are formally being trained in such areas as those listed above, “they must also meet government certification requirements in order to be licensed in the field. ” These classes will include training in fire and safety regulations and being able to rate the materials they may be using in their designs. Students will also learn about space requirements for public meeting places as well as regional building codes, lighting and sound designs, and handicap accessibility. When deciding if interior design is the career path for you, it is important to assess your own temperament and personality.

It is desirable to be energetic and optimistic. When you are working with the public, you will often come across clients who are uncooperative and not pleasant to work with. However, you must be able to move beyond such a situation to be able to get your job completed well. You must be patient, agreeable, and most of all, flexible in both your work environment and your interactions with clients. You must be able to pay close attention to detail in both your design and how you complete your projects.

Some disadvantages of being an interior designer include the constant attention to a number of details that are required for each job. These details include not only creating designs according to the client’s wishes, but also ordering materials and hiring contractors. Interior designers must be willing to work with clients who change their minds mid-project, have limited finances, and may not have the best existing conditions to work with. All of these can be expected to be part of the job. There are several attractive features in the career of interior design. Most people feel a great sense of satisfaction when completing a project that they have personally planned. ” Also, if you are a people-person, you will enjoy working with a variety of individuals. You will also have opportunities to work in many different settings and will often get to travel to different locations for your projects. When a designer is just starting out, he may need to work more than a forty-hour week. Those hours will frequently vary according to the job. It takes time and patience to establish yourself in the field and to gain the reputation necessary to build your client base.

Designers will often find themselves working nights and week-ends. Interior designers have the potential to earn over $100,000 a year depending on their level of experience, client base, and whether they work for a firm or have their own business. Individuals just starting out in the field as an assistant in a firm can expect to earn from $20,000 to $40,000 per year. An average salary for a full-time interior designer is $29,000 to $53,000 and experienced professionals who have a large client base can typically earn between $50,000 and $75,000 per year.

The highest paid interior designers are those who are self-employed and have been in the business for many years. Interior design requires hard work, dedication to one’s clients, knowledge of the field, and creative talent. An interior designer with these skills will have a very successful career. Interior designers will often have a rather hectic schedule, but for those willing to put in the time and effort, this career path can be extremely rewarding, both personally and financially.

Bibliography American Society of Interior Designers. 06 Jan. 2010. http://www. asid. org, Definition of Interior Design. 05 Jan. 2010. http://www. ncidq. org/AboutUs/AboutInteriorDesign/DefinitionofInteriorDesign. aspx International Interior Design Association (IIDA). 05 Jan. 2010. http://www. iida. com Occupational Guidance. (United States): Finney Company. 2004. “What is an interior designer? ” Careers in Interior Design. 06 Jan. 2010. http://www. careersininteriordesign. com/what. html

Building a Platform for Communications – Gracefields Kindgergarten

Building a Platform for Communication Introduction With the proliferation of internet as a source of mass communication media, many organizations see the advantages of creating a platform in the cyberspace to reach out to its “casual and intentional visitors” (Tubin & Klein, Fall 2007). Gracefields Kindergarten is one such organization. The principal, Mrs Joyce Teo, is keen to explore websites as their tool in the cyberspace to promote the school as well as to improve teacher-parent communication (personal communication, February 4, 2010).

Giladi (2004) referrred a website to be akin to the window for the school’s culture (as cited in Tubin & Klein, Fall 2007) and “the website should represent the company in a meaningful and positive light” (Levis, Helfert, & Brady, 2008). In this technological age, “Companies around the world use the internet and design sophisticated and attractive websites to promote and sell their products online to a larger spectrum of customers.

This trend is becoming increasingly popular and is now highly used. ” (Vrontis, Ktoridou, & Melanthiou, 2006). “Singaporeans are becoming more sophisticated internet users” and “the proportion of Internet users among Singapore’s resident population rose by 25 percentage points” between 2000 and 2005 (Lee, 2006). Therefore, it has become even more pertinent that organizations have a presence in the world wide web and having a website is one way to increase web visibility.

This white paper attempts to discuss what a website is, how we can create a website using web host services and the benefits and limitations of a website. It further discusses the situation at Gracefields Kindergarten and a proposed solution. About the organization Gracefields Kindergarten has a history of about 16 years, with 2 schools in Singapore at Gilstead and Teck Whye. For the purpose of this white paper, references are made to the school at Gilstead.

The school aims to provide all round development of a child through its graded program. The school does this through (Joyce Teo, personal communication, February 4, 2010) – • Providing a conducive environment which responds to the children’s need to be nurtured in the process of learning to find out and discover knowledge for everyday living • Focusing on Cognitive (Intellectual) Self Development, Social and Moral Self Development, Creative Self Development, Emotional Health Development and Physical Development. Ensuring teaching staffs are qualified teachers who are registered with the Ministry of Education and who share the common mission to assist the child in realizing his/her maximum potential for growing and learning. To achieve this, class size and number of children per teacher is kept to an acceptable level. • Offering quality, comprehensive, practical and reliable child development program in a supportive and stimulating environment.

The school continuously works towards attracting more students into its cohort and the principal, Joyce Teo, believes that an existent of a school website would enhance their marketing efforts on top of the usual print media. The website would also facilitate better teacher-parent communication, the other objective of the effort (personal communication, February 4, 2010). What is a Website? “A web site is essentially information in the form of text and graphics which may be extended with other media such as sound, stored electronically as files on a hard disk.

The hard disk is located in a computer known as a web server connected to the Internet. Files on the web server are therefore accessible via the Internet or on an internal network (intranet)” (Baggott, Nichol, & Watson, 1999, p. 105). Additionally, Baggott, Nichol, & Watson (1999) states that “a web site can give you access to an almost infinite range of information including academic and teaching materials in a form that you can either use unaltered, or adapt to your own particular needs. ” Unlike blogs, websites are more formal and less self-opinionated. It is organisational rather than individual focused.

Despite its differences, the two can still work hand in hand to provide visitors with more insightful knowledge of the organisation. How to create a website? Before we jump on the websites bandwagon, below is a list of decisions to be made prior to getting the website up (as cited in Anderson, 2009): • “do some research on websites and web hosting. Choosing a good web host is very important! ”; • choose a “web hosting plan that fits your needs and budget”; • choose a portable domain name; and • select a host and a hosting plan On the note of choosing a web host, organizations have an option of using a free or paid web host. Free web hosting – For budget constraint organization, this option seems most cost effective although not without its limitations, for example, limited storage space, uses the host’s domain name, less professionally looking, advertisements that may not reflect well on the organization’s image or culture etc. Furthermore, during my research, most if not all the free web host are based overseas (usually in The United States of America). That could pose a support issue due to the time differences. Given the characteristics of free web host, it is best used for personal websites and non-business related organizations.

Here are some examples of free web hosts, who also offer paid services as upgrades: o www. webs. com – enjoyed 5 years of steady growth o www. yola. com – recipient of various awards in 2008 o www. wix. com. – with flash capability o www. weebly. com – TIMES’ 50 best websites of 2007 o www. 110bm. com • Paid web hosting – The cost ranges depending on the company and the type of services selected. Using a paid web host allows the organization to have a custom domain name, have larger storage space, better customer service support, greater speed and consistent server uptime, just to name a few.

Here are some examples of paid local web hosts (top five extracted from www. sghostcompare. com, a website that compares a list of web hosts): o http://www. cyberaxis. com. sg/ o http://webhosting. on. sg/ o http://www. usonyx. net/ o http://www. hostsg. com/ o http://www. iwi. com. sg/ What then makes a good school website? In Tubin & Klein (Fall 2007), they cited a few authors’ opinion of what a quality school website would look like: • structural robustness, functional utility, and aesthetic appeal-that impact user satisfaction and loyalty (Hong & Kim, 2004); • richness of the contents (Leping & Johnson, 2005); the website’s usefulness and ease of use (Selim, 2003); • serves as an extension of the school, offering a learning environment that enhances individualization of teaching and learning, and improving teacher-student communication (Cumming, Bonk, & Jacobs, 2002) and lastly, • props up the school’s high positioning and image, both for accountability and marketing purposes, especially in a decentralized and competitive environment where demands for accountability and parental choice become an important factor in the school’s survival (Oplatka & Hemsley-Brown, 2004; Bush, 1999; Marks & Nance, 2007). Getting started Software/ hardware

As long as the organization has a working computer with internet access, it can register for an account with the web host or to make the necessary purchase online if it chose to pay for the web hosting. Organizations do not need to purchase nor maintain any hardware and in most cases, no extra cost for software either. Skills requirement of user As most of website builders are created with the masses in mind, there is no necessity for the organization to be well-versed with any web programming language. The website can be created with simple drag and click actions. However, the organization does need to bear in mind that the appointed web dministrator has to be comfortable with the use of computer and internet and web content contributors have good writing skills to portray the right image for the organization. Cost As mentioned earlier, cost of using free web host can be zero if the basic package suffices the organization’s needs and if using a free web host is appropriate. Should organizations require additional payable services, they can be upgraded at very affordable prices. If the organization has yet to acquire the necessary hardware, i. e. computer, it would have to take that into the cost consideration. Labor is the other cost factor to consider.

Given that some web builders are easy to use, the organization can save up on hiring expensive IT experts. However, they may have to invest in training the appointed web administrator to get him or her accustomed to the use of the web builder. Benefits of a website Below are some benefits organizations can enjoy if they have a website: • Cost – In comparison to print media, websites are a much cheaper way of promoting and advertising the organization and far more flexible. • Convenience – users do not have to travel or to make calls to the organization to enquire about products or services.

With the availability of a website, visitors can retrieve information at their own time and comfort. • Improve credibility – when an organization has a well developed website, people tend to trust the organization more and know that it means business! • 24/7, all round the year – other than any downtime faced by the server, the website is ‘opened’ twenty-four hours, seven days a week and through the year. • Growth of business – potential investors can be directed to the website to get more understanding of the achievements of the company and what it can achieve in future. Limitations of a website

Tubin & Klein (Fall 2007) cited the following: • it needs a webmaster to run it. If the webmaster falls behind in updating or responding to questions, the website becomes outdated and impairs accountability efforts. • the website needs content contributors; without them, the website becomes stale and may affect the number of visitors. Other drawbacks include: • misinterpretation and wrongful use of website information • it can only be accessed if one has a computer with internet access • downtime may put off visitors and create a negative impression for the organization The case of Gracefields Kindergarten Teacher-parent communication

Presently, the school does not have an official website. Teacher-parent communication is primarily done via printed letters or phone calls whenever necessary. Letter communication is definitely not eco-friendly at all even though it is working well for the school. With the introduction of a website, it is hoped that non-time sensitive messages to parents can be communicated via the school website. We can also explore tools such as RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds, Twitter or Facebook to stay connected to parents, and an add-on feature to send instant short messages from the website to the parents’ mobiles for quick and important updates.

Prospective parents and students A school visit is one of only two ways to learn more about the school for this group of people. The other mode is through teleconversation which does not help in presenting the visual aspect of the school environment. The principal is the default person who would entertain this group of visitors and although she carries out her duty with much enthusiasm (I personally attest to it), having a school website will, without doubt, help lighten her load. If prospective parents are able to find answers to their queries in the website, that may cut down telephone enquiries and time spent during on-site visits.

Compatibility with other system During the interview, the principal has also expressed interest in establishing an online student database whereby parents can have access to their child’s progress report in school. Although this is beyond the scope of what a website would offer, we have to bear that in mind when selecting a web host – which would eventually allow the school to upgrade or to port it to the next system, such as a portal, for such function. Cost consideration Preschools in Singapore do not get additional financial assistance from the government.

Apart from school fees collected, some preschools may receive additional funding through their association with community foundations, religious bodies, social organisations and business organisations (Joyce Teo, personal communication, February 4, 2010). Gracefields Kindergarten is fully funded by the school fees they collect. As such, the school has to work with a tight budget to get this website up and running. Maintenance and security issues- Maintenance cost of the website should be kept to a minimal and ideally, without the need for a separate IT specialist as the budget would likely not be able to accommodate.

The principal is also concerned with security and privacy issues. Proposed Solution Since local web hosting sites are in abundance for selection, for ease of customer support sake (that would address the concern for maintenance of the website), the website will be hosted on a local web host. As such, by default, free web host would not be solutions. At $5 per month, the school can enjoy a list of services for the website from Singapore Host (www. singaporehost. sg), one of the top five web hosts reviewed by www. sghostcompare. com. Singapore Host is also able to Conclusion

In today’s online world, a Web presence is a veritable necessity ((Renfroe, 2005). The first thing that crosses people’s mind when they need information is to consult the World Wide Web. A quick web search and it returns a list of results, almost instantaneously! Visitors form an impression of the organization when they visit its website. “A successful web-based marketing can indeed be achieved by defining a website’s main objectives, designing a website through applying principles of best practice usability, tracking website visitor activity, and maximizing the site’s visibility. ” (Vrontis, Ktoridou, & Melanthiou, 2006).

References Anderson, L. (2009). Seminar 9: Web Design Using Web Hosts: Mary Harper. , 17, p. 93. Baggott, L. , Nichol, J. , & Watson, K. (1999). Web authoring for beginners. Journal of Biological Education , 33 (2). Giladi, M. (2004). Windows of culture: An analysis of Israeli ORT school websites. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Pretoria . Pretoria, South Africa. Gueutal, H. G. , & Stone, D. L. (2005). The Brave New World of eHR: Human Resources Management in the Digital Age. San Francisco, CA, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lee, M. C. (2006). Infocomm Usage by Households and Individuals 2000–2005.

Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, Strategic Planning Division. Singapore: Singapore Statistics Newsletter. Levis, M. , Helfert, M. , & Brady, M. (2008). Website Design Quality and Form Input Validation: An Empirical Study on Irish Corporate Websites. Journal of Service Science and Management , 1 (1). Mantyla, K. (2001). Blending E-Learning: The Power Is in the Mix. Alexandria, VA, USA: American Society for Training & Development. Marquardt, M. J. , & Kearsley, G. (1999). Technology-Based Learning: Managing Human Performance and Corporate Success. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: St. Lucie Press. Renfroe, M. 2005). Products You Can Use to Build Your Site. Knowledge Quest , 33 (3), 17-18. Rosenberg, M. J. (2006). Beyond e-Learning: Approaches and Technologies to Enhance Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Performance. San Francisco, CA, USA: Pfeiffer. Tubin, D. , & Klein, S. (Fall 2007). Designing a School Website: Contents, Structure, and Responsiveness. Planning and Changing , 38 (3/4). Vrontis, D. , Ktoridou, D. , & Melanthiou, Y. (2006). Website Design and Development as An Effective and Efficient Promotional Tool: A Case Study in the Hotel Industry in Cyprus. Journal of Website Promotion , 2 (3/4), 125-139.

Corporate Social Responsibility in a Recession

10/12/2009 Student Name: | Niall Byrne | | Corporate Social Responsibility In A Recession | Table of contents Introduction3 Brief overview of CSR………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 CSR is an unnecessary expense 3 Reasons for continuing CSR5 What exactly does CSR improve about business Strategy6 Is there a happy middle ground8 Conclusion9 Reference list:………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 Appendices12

Appendix 1: different stances companies have on CSR and their relationship with stakeholders12 Appendix 2: Nike Respect 12 Introduction In times of economic down turn many businesses will want to cut unnecessary expenditure. This paper will look at two viewpoints related to CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility): 1. Is CSR a unnecessary expense for the modern day business 2. Is CSR a necessary expense for the modern day business The paper will include real life examples and view points from many sources, and then come to a conclusion regarding the effect which the economic down turn has had on CSR.

Brief overview of CSR According to (1)Johnson et al (2008) CSR is concerned with the ways in which an organisation exceeds its minimum obligations to the company stakeholders, normally each firm will have a different view point on its approach to CSR. Appendix 1 shows the different approaches business have and how they manage their stakeholder. CSR is an unnecessary expense: This point of view leads on from the definition of Corporate Social Responsibility, which states that CSR is concerned with the way in which the organisation exceeds its minimum obligations.

The word exceed leads one to think that CSR is carried out as a process which is done as an extra on top of normal goals of the company/business. An article (2) (Economist, Nov 19th 2008) wrote that many companies pretend that their CSR strategy runs deeper in their organisation than it really does, and if pressed they would only be able to name a few ways in which the company is truly socially responsible. With companies viewing CSR in this way then they may see it as an expense that yes it would be “nice” if we done it but it doesn’t really make financial sense to incorporate or carry in on with the current business strategy.

This way of thinking would apply most definitely in a period of economic down turn (3) Caulkin, (2009) “An economic recession would also be bad news for the CSR industry, parts of which might be seen as a luxury companies could live without” (2) (Economist, Nov 19th 2008) Example of businesses cutting back on CSR in recession time: Asda/Wal-Mart in 2008 didn’t even mention the environmental factors in their company report. Instead they focused more on the “profitable growth”, “Staff retention” and “customer focus”.

This is a change according to (4) Macalister (2008) who said that in the past this organisation never refused an opportunity to stress the importance of the green movement. The second example is that of BP. (4) Macalister (2008) talked about the fact that BP were considering the sale of its renewable-power business, and instead setting its focus on getting their profits and share price back on track. An interesting article written by (5) Tim Breitbarth (2009) argues the point that high levels of CSR can be seen as an international trade barrier. The reason why he says this is that some countries within the EU nd also outside the EU don’t have as highly developed CSR culture, in other words some countries CSR development is still in its infancy stage compare to the EUs more developed understanding of it. This can be seen as a way in which CSR in the EU can prevent the global economy taking advantage of new opportunities and in turn slow down the movement out of the economic down turn. The World Bank (2002), WTO (2003) and the US-centred Institute for Trade Standards and Sustainable Development (2005) raise several concerns about the way this may lead to restricted market access for foreign companies.

Over the past year the recession has been seen as global and it is said that increased trade will aid the turnaround of events, this leads to the question is CSR preventing certain countries from improving their situation? Will it lead to these countries abandoning CSR because is seen as too costly? Another effect the economic down turn has had on CSR, the reduction of trust the public has in companies/organisation. According to (6) Quelch (2009) when the company sees the company reducing their CSR in times of recession they will assume that the companies only reason for using CSR was a “publicity stunt”.

This type of reputation can really damage a company in the long run because they have lost all customer support and more importantly their trust. Example of company using CSR but not fully supporting it: A high profile case is that of Nike sportswear. At one time Nike was supporting the respect campaign see appendix 2 ( the black and white wrist bands) but at the same time they were using sweatshops to make their footwear (7) Holmes (2003) Cases like this will seriously damage customers trust in the brand To sum this section up as CSR being an unnecessary expense, the view of (8) Jack and Suzy Welch (2009) will be looked at.

There view point is that: “Tough economic conditions underscore a blunt reality. A company’s foremost responsibility is to do well. That may sound politically incorrect, but the reason is inexorable. Winning companies create jobs, pay taxes, and strengthen the economy. Winning companies, in other words, enable social responsibility, not the other way around. And so, right now—as always—companies should be putting profitability first. It’s the necessity that makes every other necessity possible. ” (8) Jack and Suzy Welch (2009 Reasons for continuing CSR:

The second point of view for companies in a recession is to continue to invest in CSR. According to (9) Bentley (2009) CSR is seen as a good business strategy, to be sustainable, businesses are now embracing a relatively new objective: optimising their operations to minimise environmental impact and improve social outcomes in a manner that also maximises performance. This works on two fronts: 1. The company is seen to have increased their CSR which will keep certain stakeholders happy 2. The companies have implemented a CSR system which will increase their performance through the economic down turn.

According to (10) Hanson (2008) although businesses need to watch costs and spending during a downturn, it may not be the time to cut your CSR budget. Companies have to be concerned about keeping staff and their customer base, keeping a sound stance on where the company stands is really important and is especially important in an economic down turn. Example of business continuing investment in CSR: Intel, the world’s largest chipmaker, says it plans to increase investment in energy efficiency this year because the $23m it has poured into green energy since 2001 cut its fuel bills by $50m over the same period. 14) (Economist, Nov 19th 2008) Self-interest also explains why many companies are intent on creating greener supply chains, in spite of the costs. Mars and Cadbury have separately announced plans to increase the amount of cocoa they source from sustainable sources because both are concerned about future shortages if production practices do not change. IKEA who is also fretting about one of its most important raw materials, agreed a plan to increase the amount of wood in its products that comes from responsibly managed forests between 2010 and 2012. (14) (Economist, Nov 19th 2008)

This example illustrates the point that CSR activities can aid companies in improvement of general business activities and ensure future security. What exactly does CSR improve about business Strategy? The paper has looked at the incorporation of CSR as a business strategy and the benefits of it for a business as a whole in a recession, but how exactly does the strategy work: (11) Franklen (2008) states the following are the benefits of having a CSR Strategy: * Good CSR will ensure that the company’s reputation will remain untainted; this can be seen in the previous example about Nike using sweatshops.

CSR will improve the risk management side of the business i. e. the business will understand the concerns of the stakeholders and will know what direction to go in order to keep the company’s reputation good. * CSR has become a big part of the “talent war”, the growing struggle to attract and retain the people that businesses need to remain competitive. At business schools, MBA students are flocking to courses on ethics and social entrepreneurship. When they emerge many of them are keen to join companies with values they admire.

A common denominator of conversations with business executives is that CSR matters more and more for both recruitment and for motivating staff. * As mentioned before CSR has become a global barrier, therefore a company will have to have a CSR system in place to enter new foreign markets. With the Kyoto agreement in place companies will have to meet standards in order to enter new markets. This will be key for international companies who view the movement into new markets as a key growth method and the best way to combat the recession.

Another key issue to consider by businesses when deciding to keep or get dispose of their CSR programmes is the stance which the government will take on the situation. An article in the (2) (Economist, Nov 19th 2008) writes about that governments face their own test on “sustainability”. A summit in Copenhagen at the end of the year is supposed to hammer out a post-Kyoto agreement to cut greenhouse gases. Already pressure is growing to avoid the growth-inhibiting restrictions needed to meet ambitious carbon-cutting targets. The outcome of this can go either two ways: 1.

The government will introduce strict rules/Laws governing the ways in which companies operate, for example laws could be introduced to tell the companies to reduce their carbon emissions. Companies which have continued to operate a CSR strategy through the recession will be better prepared for these changes than the company who decides not to invest. 2. The second consideration is, Failure to reach a deal between all the world governments will mean, in effect, that the world gives up seriously seeking to stop global warming. Instead, attention would turn to ways the world might adapt to climate change rather than prevent it.

This once again questions the company’s continuous investment in CSR policies over the recession. Businesses may see this as good business sense to adopted a wait and see approach to continuous CSR investment Is there a happy middle ground? In a situation like this a key question is there a way to embrace both view point i. e. is there a “middle” ground which can be taken advantage of? An article in the (12) (Economist, Jan 17th 2008) examines companies which are leaders and companies which choose to stay further behind in the leading pack.

Many larger companies who are seen to have more spending power may decide to embrace CSR more and become a CSR leader, and take full advantage of all the new opportunities which will come with a first mover strategy. With this in mind companies like this will have to continue to invest larger amounts of money even during times of economic down turns, for the simply reason this is the image the company has built for themselves and their stakeholders expect this. The second type of company seen to be the more “middle ground” company is the one that does invest in CSR to a certain extent but chooses not to be a market leader in CSR.

This company will wait until the first mover advantage has been removed by the leaders in the industry and then it is seen to be the norm. The advantage of this approach is that the company has moved in the CSR arena but has not fully committed large sums of finance to become a leader. During a recession this company can continue to invest in CSR but not to the extent of a market leader, leaving funds available to invest in other areas of the company. “The simple solution is that businesses should concentrate on the sweet spot where initiatives are good for both profits and social welfare.

This is the sort of “win-win” situation that executives love to talk about: the smart thing to do as well as the right thing to do. ” (12) (Economist, Jan 17th 2008) Conclusion The two approaches to how companies approach CSR introduce interesting points. From the definition of CSR it seems to read that CSR is more of an afterthought than a key strategy, and that companies in general should focus on the generation of profits instead of investing company profits in an activity that is not necessary. This view point seems to be not fully eveloped with many people saying that profits are very important for a company, and that CSR is a good way of adding competitive advantage to firms in a time where the economy doesn’t encourage trade. 85% of the FTSE 100 refers to CSR in their annual reports, according to one study. With many businesses publishing their support for CSR via many media sources and their own website, they may have very little choice but to continue their support of the movement. (3) Caulkin, (2009) Recent CAF research which found that 95% of companies thought CSR would remain as important despite the downturn.

However the recession will test the strategy at the heart of CSR: that it ought to be embedded in a company’s daily business (for example, making the giving of free professional advice part of staff-development programmes) and defended in terms of employee and customer engagement, enhanced corporate image and the bottom line (13) Braid(2009) This view point leads to the conclusion that the “middle ground” approach mentioned early maybe be the best way for businesses to operate during a recession. The key is to invest but cautiously.

Reference list: * (9) [online] Bentley (2009) [Accessed 01/12/09] information available from: http://www. cio. co. uk/article/3207150/corporate-social-responsibility-enters-the-strategic-realm/? pn=1 * (13) Braid (2009) ,Will corporate giving suffer in the crunch? The Sunday Times, http://business. timesonline. co. uk/tol/business/career_and_jobs/article5732059. ece * (5) Breitbarth,T, et al, 2009,Corporate social responsibility in the European Union: a new trade barrier?. Journal of Public Affairs. London. Vol. 9, Iss. 4; pg. 39 * (14) N/A, Business: A stress test for good intentions; Corporate social responsibility. The Economist. London: May 16, 2009. Vol. 391, Iss. 8631; pg. 69 * (3) [online] Caulkin, S, 2009, corporate social responsibility-credit-crunch The Observer, Sunday 5 April 2009 [Accessed 03/12/09] Information available from: http://www. guardian. co. uk/business/2009/apr/05/corporatesocialresponsibility-credit-crunch * (11) Daniel Franklin,2008, [online] Good company,[accessed 04/12/09] information available from: http://www. guardian. co. uk/commentisfree/2008/jan/19/goodcompany * (10)

Marykay Swot Anaylsis

Running Head: Mary Kay Cosmetic SWOT Analysis Mary Kay Cosmetic SWOT Analysis Author Darlene Trotter Mary Kay History At a time when women were suppose to be home taking care of their families Mary Kay Ash was out working in a man’s world and achieving success. After 25 years working in direct sales and being passed over for promotions by men she had trained, in those times women were not given many opportunities for advancement, Mary Kay Ash handed in her resignation.

After she resigned she began writing a book about her experiences in the work force, she did not want other women to experience what she had, and soon discovered she had a marketing plan for a dream company. With her oldest son, Richard, $5,000 in savings, the skin cream she bought the manufacturing rights too, and her experience she started Beauty by Mary Kay which we now know as Mary Kay Cosmetic. With a force of nine independent sales representatives, whom she recruited and were friends of hers, who were eager to prove themselves Beauty by Mary Kay took off.

Her company is based on the principle of faith first, family second, career third. Mary Kay believed in rewarding hard workers and gave away jewelry, vacations, and pink Cadillics to her top sales representatives now referred to as Independent Beauty Consultants. Within two years sales neared $1 million and as the company grew new products were added. In 1996 Mary Kay Ash founded The Mary Kay Foundation in honor of her Golden Rule emphasizing the importance of giving back. The mission of the foundation is to eliminate cancer and to end the epidemic of violence against women.

In 2009 $5. 8 million was donated to cancer research and violence against women. With a sales force of 1. 8 million beauty consultants worldwide 500 of them National Sales Directors, the highest achievement at Mary Kay, is one of the most nationally recognized companies today. Since the inception Mary Kay has had double-digit growth. Mary Kay manufacturers and packages the majority of its products from its state-of-the-art facilities in Dallas and China. “The legacy of Mary Kay Ash continues to inspire, enrich and empower women around the globe to believe that they can do great things. (Marykayintouch. com) Mission Statement Mary Kay’s mission is to enrich women’s lives. We will do this in tangible ways, by offering quality products to consumers, financial opportunities to our independent sales force, and fulfilling careers to our employees. We also will reach out to the heart and spirit of women, enabling growth and fulfillment for the women whose lives we touch We will carry out our mission in a spirit of caring, living the positive values on which our company was built Integrity, Enthusiasm, Praise, Leadership, Quality, Teamwork, Service, Balance (faculty. nlv. edu. angel) Mary Kay’s Organizational Strengths Mary Kay Cosmetic does all its product research and development at is state of the art facility in Dallas. They stand behind their product and invest time and money to ensure it is the best. The teams of expert scientist use the most advanced skin care technology to ensure that consumers get a product they can believe in and are worth the money. The company is dedicated to having the best skin care product offered and wants the consumer to have absolute faith in it. They offer a 100% money back guarantee on all products.

This allows their sales force to offer products they truly believe in and can guarantee that the consumer will be happy with it and if they are not happy can be refunded their money no questions asked. If product is returned the beauty consultant can return the product and get a brand new replacement. The sales force of Independent Beauty Consultants is another strength that cannot be ignored. No one can say that Mary Kay does not take care of their sales force. Though they are “self-employed” Mary Kay offers the best training and rewards.

In their training each beauty consultant is encouraged to “consider herself Mary Kay” to project the founder’s charisma and selling ability (tshaonline. org). Beauty consultants are taught that they are in business for themselves but not by themselves. The rewards for sales and recruiting are numerous vacations, jewelry, and lots of recognition. One of the highest achievements is a pink Cadillac. With the training and rewards it is obvious why the beauty consultant works so hard to be successful. The fact that there are 1. million Independent Beauty Consultants attests to Mary Kay success. Product knowledge and safety are probably the biggest strength of the company. Beginning with the first skin cream that Mary Kay bought the manufacturing right to; to today’s anti-aging products she has always wanted to sell the best product. It was a tanner’s daughter who mixed up the cream and Mary Kay knew it was something special. Mary Kay spends millions of dollars a year and does more than 300,000 test to ensure every product meets the highest standard for safety, quality, and performance (Marykay. om). Each new product goes through stringent testing before being brought to market. With these standards the consumer knows they are getting a product they can count on. The dedication of Mary Kay Cosmetics to knowing what they sell and that it is safe for the consumer has made them the company they are today. Mary Kay Organizational Weaknesses Recruiting is the backbone of Mary Kay Cosmetics. However, it also can be their undoing. When you sign up to be an Independent Beauty Consultant there are two things that happen.

First, they want you to buy your store which can cost anywhere from $600 to $4800. This is a big investment and they don’t say anything until after you sign your contract. That can discourage the new consultant right away. The second thing is now they want you to sell the business to your friends and family. It called Building your own team. These two things are not mentions till after you sign your contract and they got you hooked. This is defiantly a weakness and has spawned some websites that are not friendly to Mary Kay a few examples are sequenceinc. om and pinktruth. com. I think there needs to be some better training of the directors to be more upfront with what is involved. Another weakness is there is a high rate of consultant who do not make it past the first year or who never see that wonderful income they are told about. Even though the numbers show that there are 1. 8 million consultants worldwide there are still high numbers who do not make it as a consultant or if they remain a consultant there income does not replace a full time job.

I believe that comes from the pressure that is put on them by their directors. Part of the problem is not fully disclosing how a consultant truly earns the big income. The product that is returned from dissatisfied sales consultants and what is done with it. When consultants decide to return the product for whatever reason the company gladly takes it back no questions asked but what do they do with it. The products are unopened and when received back it is destroyed. I believe this to be a weakness because there has to be a better way to use that product.

That is such a waste and with Mary Kay’s foundation for cancer and domestic violence I would hope they could find a way to donate some of the product to shelters or recovery centers. References http:/faculty. unlv. edu/angeline/mary%20kay%20/opportunity. ppt http:/www. tshaonline. org/handbook/online/articles/MM/dhm. html http:/www. marykay. com/company/companyfounder/default. aspx http:/www. entrepreneurs. about. com/od/famousentreperneurs/pl/marykayash. html http:/www. marykayintouch. com

Sql Essay

SQL has many unique commands that help simplify database commands. SQL’s UNION command allows us to combine the results of two or more database queries that are not necessarily linked through a database relationship. For example, if we have a school database and wish to use it to create a master contact list for all students, faculty and staff that could be difficult. Looking at our database, we can discover that the records corresponding to each of these constituencies appears in separate database tables.

Our first impulse might be to export the data from each table into a spreadsheet and combine the information there. However, an easier way would be to combine these records within the database by writing separate queries for each constituency and combining the results of those queries with the UNION statement. The syntax of the UNION statement is the following: SELECT_Query_1 UNION [ALL] SELECT_Query_2 The purpose of the SQL UNION command is to combine the results of two queries together. UNION is somewhat similar to the JOIN command in that they are both used to related information from multiple tables.

This command does have some restrictions. One restriction of UNION is that all corresponding columns need to be of the same data type. Also, when using UNION, only distinct values are selected similar to SELECT DISTINCT. Also, each SELECT statement within the UNION must have the same number of columns. The columns must also have similar data types and all of the columns in each SELECT statement must be in the same order. There is also a UNION ALL command (Rob and Coronel (2009). The purpose of the SQL UNION ALL command is also to combine the results of two queries together.

The difference between UNION ALL and UNION is that, while UNION only selects distinct values, UNION ALL selects all values. The syntax is as follows: [SQL Statement 1] UNION [ALL] [SQL Statement 2] (SQL Book) Another helpful SQL command is INTERSECT. Similar to the UNION command, INTERSECT also operates on two SQL statements. The difference is that, while UNION essentially acts as an OR operator, the INTERSECT command acts as an AND operator in that the value is selected only if it appears in both statements (Rob and Coronel (2009).

It also returns distinct values by comparing the results of two queries. INTERSECT returns any distinct values that are returned by both the query on the left and right sides of the INTERSECT operator. The basic rules for combining the result sets of two queries that use INTERSECT is that the number and the order of the columns must be the same in all queries and also that the data types must be compatible. The syntax is the following: [SQL Statement 1] INTERSECT [SQL Statement 2] (SQL Book).

Another helpful SQL command is the EXCEPT command. The EXCEPT or MINUS command operates on two SQL statements. It takes all the results from the first SQL statement, and then subtracts out the ones that are present in the second SQL statement to get the final answer( BLACK WASP). If the second SQL statement includes results not present in the first SQL statement, then the results are ignored. EXCEPT returns any distinct values from the left query that are not also found on the right query.

The basic rules for combining the result sets of two queries that use EXCEPT are that the number and the order of the columns must be the same in all queries and also that the data types must be compatible(Rob and Coronel (2009). References Rob, P. , & Coronel, C. (2009). Database Systems Design, Implementation, and Management (8th ed. ). Boston, MA: Thomson Course Technology. SQL Book. Retrieved from http://www. sqlbook. com/SQL/SQL-UNION-and-UNION-ALL-32. aspx BLACK WASP. Retrieved from http://www. blackwasp. co. uk/SQLExceptIntersect. aspx

Business Law Case Study

Please answer the questions posed at the end of each case study in essay form. Each essay will be judged on your capacity to present strong, logical discussions that support your conclusions. Case study 1 Members of Students for Fair Tuition (SFT) decide to protest rising tuition costs at Gigantic State University (GSU) by taking over Dunfee Hall, the location of GSU president Dalton Chandler’s office. As they storm into the reception area of Chandler’s office suite, shouting “Down with fascist tuition increases,” Chandler’s faithful secretary, Prudence Pimply, picks up a phone to call the campus police.

Steve Steel, radical leader of the SFT, slaps the phone knocking it from Prudence’s hand without ever touching her. He then pulls out an amazing lifelike squirt gun and threatens to blow Prudence’s head off if she so much as moves an inch toward the phone or the door. Prudence collapses in a sobbing heap on her desk. Unfortunately for their purposes, the students find the only door to Chandler’s third floor office locked from the inside. After a few feeble attempts to break it down, they contend with barricading his door with filing cabinets and singing “We Will Overcome” until the police arrive shortly thereafter.

The total time elapsed from the moment the students entered the building until the police arrive is ten minutes. President Chandler was taking a nap and slept through the entire incident. Prudence was so upset that she couldn’t return to work for a week, and then only managed to do so under heavy doses of tranquilizers prescribed by her doctor, Morton Mallard. Consider the following when writing this essay: ·Was a crime committed? ·Was there any negligence involved in this case? ·What laws and rights were violated? Who should be held liable for the damages (physical and mental)? ·Discuss the possible tort liability in this incident. Assault, battery, infliction of emotional distress, and false imprisonment all should be explored. This was a very interesting case that started off as not being a crime but then turned into a intentional inflection of emotional distress against Prudence. The tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress has four elements: 1. the defendant must act intentionally or recklessly; 2. the defendant’s conduct must be extreme and outrageous; and 3. he conduct must be the cause 4. of severe emotional distress. This is exactly what happened din this case. Steve Steel not only knocked the phone out of Prudence’s hand but also broke down the door and threatened Prudence with force and made her scared for her life. I do believe that negligence is a part of this case. A person who engages in activities that pose an unreasonable risk toward others and their property that actually results in harm, breaches their duty of reasonable care. Steve Steel did not show a proper care of duty with Prudence.

I think that Steve Steel should also be responsible for all of the physical and mental damages since he did not show reasonable care. I think the tort liability in this case would be assault and battery. An assault involves three things that we see in this case. An assault occurs when an intentional, unlawful threat or “offer” to cause bodily injury to another by force; under circumstances which create in the other person a well-founded fear of imminent peril; where there exists the apparent present ability to carry out the act if not prevented.

A battery is the willful or intentional touching of a person against that person’s will by another person, or by an object or substance put in motion by that other person. Please note that an offensive touching can constitute a battery even if it does not cause injury, and could not reasonably be expected to cause injury. Both of these items occurred in this case. Case study 2 Steve Simple is a pledge in Zeta Iota Tau (ZIT) fraternity at Minor State Teachers College (MSTC).

As part of his pledge duties, he is sent to climb the campus water tower to repaint the fraternity’s Greek letters, which had faded in the last year ( the tower has been covered, virtually throughout its existence, with graffiti placed on it by students). The night Steve climbs the tower a tremendous thunderstorm is in progress, making the steps quite slippery and exposing anyone climbing the tower to a great danger of being hit by lightning. Fortified by a six-pack of Hudepohl beer ($1. 89 warm at the local convenience store), Steve nonetheless decides to make the attempt.

Unfortunately, Steve is electrocuted halfway up the tower by a short circuit in the tower’s pumping mechanism. The short circuit was the result of a failure to perform proper maintenance (this being deferred by MSTC so that it could pay higher faculty salaries) and was something that had happened before (although only pigeons had been fried in the past). Prepare a written essay of the potential liability of all parties in this case. Consider the following: ·Negligence ·Fault ·Chain of causation ·Proximate cause ·Assumption of risk ·Contributory negligence ·Comparative negligence

Negligence is the failure to use reasonable care. It is also the doing of something which a reasonably prudent person would not do, or the failure to do something which a reasonably prudent person would do under like circumstances. It can also be a departure from what an ordinary reasonable member of the community would do in the same community. Negligence is also a ‘legal cause’ of damage if it directly and in natural and continuous sequence produces or contributes substantially to producing such damage, so it can reasonably be said that if not for the negligence, the loss, injury or damage would not have occurred.

Negligence may be a legal cause of damage even though it operates in combination with the act of another, a natural cause, or some other cause if the other cause occurs at the same time as the negligence and if the negligence contributes substantially to producing such damage. In this case , I think it is unreasonably dangerous climb a tower during a thunderstorm. However the school may be liable even though it exercised all reasonable care in the design, manufacture and sale of the product in question for not during proper maintenance.

You can also consider the chain of causation in this case. A chain of causation is a series of events, each of which was caused by the immediately previous event. This law states that if the result would not have occurred but for what the defendant did, then the prosecution has established a chain of causation. It could be said that if it Zeta Iota Tau fraternity tradition then Steve would not have been in this situation. a proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result.

In this case the fraternity would not immediately responsible for causing Steve to get hurt. Assumption of Risk also comes into play into this case because Mr. Simple clearly knew what he was getting into. His judgment could have also been impaired by the beer but he know clearly what he was getting into . In a comparative negligence system, the injured person may still recover some of his or her damages even if he was partially to blame for causing the accident. Plaintiff’s financial recovery may be reduced depending how plaintiff’s actions caused or contributed to the accident.

In states using a comparative negligence system, a jury or judge determines the proportion of fault to be assigned to each responsible party.. In this type of system multiple parties such as the fraternity and the school could be held responsible for some of the things that happened. With contributory negligence, a person who negligently causes harm to another cannot be held liable if that injured individual contributed to his own suffering and injury, In this case Steve would be responsible

The Bluest Eye

The Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison Compare and contrast Claudia and Pecola in terms of their ability to fight injustice. How does this ability affect them later in the novel? It is not hard to notice the contrast between Claudia’s method to fight injustice and Pecola’s method. Claudia is a fighter and incredibly brave. She will not let the community that she lives in destroy her life. Therefore, she speaks up when she considers that something is unfair and wrong. Unlike Claudia, Pecola is used to not getting any love or attention from her parents. She does not know how to get anyone to love her, which is stated in the novel on page 23.

Pecola is also very aware of the fact that people sees her as ugly and that her suffering makes the community feel somewhat lucky. That is the reason she starts living in her own fantasy world. Claudia is giving a white baby doll as a Christmas gift, even though she does not want it. She analyzes the doll while asking herself where the beauty is located. She cannot understand what her community sees in people like Shirley Temple, nor the doll. For that reason, she decides to destroy it, and one can tell that her action portrays some jealousy. In contrast of Claudia, Pecola does not have the emotional strength to defend herself.

She gets harassed by both kids and adults and she just puts up with it. She somehow feels defeated without a fight because of her low self-esteem. She slowly starts to create another world in her mind. “Pecola edged around the circle crying. She had dropped her notebook, and covered her eyes with her hands. ” (50) Pecola Breedlove does not have the self-esteem to contest the injustices she faces from whites. In an effort to be accepted by whites, and furthermore by her family, Pecola longs to conform to Western ideals of beauty presented by whites, especially white, blue-eyed movie stars like Shirley Temple.

Pecola believes that by habitually praying for blue eyes whites would perceive her as beautiful; she too would feel attractive; her parents would discontinue their fighting; Sammy would stop running away and she would have a happy life, like Jane. Pecola? s constant desire for blue eyes is an indication that images of white perfection and beauty are important to her because she feels that it she possesses one symbol of whiteness she will never again be subjected to the harsh realities of discrimination. The Bluest Eye is not one story, but multiple, sometimes contradictory, interlocking stories.

Characters tell stories to make sense of their lives, and these stories have tremendous power for both good and evil. Claudia’s stories, in particular, stand out for their affirmative power. First and foremost, she tells Pecola’s story, and though she questions the accuracy and meaning of her version, to some degree her attention and care redeem the ugliness of Pecola’s life. Furthermore, when the adults describe Pecola’s pregnancy and hope that the baby dies, Claudia and Frieda attempt to rewrite this story as a hopeful one, casting themselves as saviors.

Finally, Claudia resists the premise of white superiority, writing her own story about the beauty of blackness. Stories by other characters are often destructive to themselves and others. The story Pauline Breedlove tells herself about her own ugliness reinforces her self-hatred, and the story she tells herself about her own martyrdom reinforces her cruelty toward her family. Soaphead Church’s personal narratives about his good intentions and his special relationship with God are pure hypocrisy. Stories are as likely to distort the truth as they are to reveal it.

While Morrison apparently believes that stories can be redeeming, she is no blind optimist and refuses to let us rest comfortably in any one version of what happens. Pecola is the protagonist of The Bluest Eye, but despite this central role she is passive and remains a mysterious character. Morrison explains in her novel’s afterword that she purposely tells Pecola’s story from other points of view to keep Pecola’s dignity and, to some extent, her mystery intact. She wishes to prevent us from labeling Pecola or prematurely believing that we understand her.

Pecola is a fragile and delicate child when the novel begins, and by the novel’s close, she has been almost completely destroyed by violence. At the beginning of the novel, two desires form the basis of her emotional life: first, she wants to learn how to get people to love her; second, when forced to witness her parents’ brutal fights, she simply wants to disappear. Neither wish is granted, and Pecola is forced further and further into her fantasy world, which is her only defense against the pain of her existence.

She believes that being granted the blue eyes that she wishes for would change both how others see her and what she is forced to see. At the novel’s end, she delusively believes that her wish has been granted, but only at the cost of her sanity. Pecola’s fate is a fate worse than death because she is not allowed any release from her world—she simply moves to “the edge of town, where you can see her even now. ” [pic][pic][pic] Pecola is also a symbol of the black community’s self-hatred and belief in its own ugliness.

Others in the community, including her mother, father, and Geraldine, act out their own self-hatred by expressing hatred toward her. At the end of the novel, we are told that Pecola has been a scapegoat for the entire community. Her ugliness has made them feel beautiful, her suffering has made them feel comparatively lucky, and her silence has given them the opportunity for speaking. But because she continues to live after she has lost her mind, Pecola’s aimless wandering at the edge of town haunts the community, reminding them of the ugliness and hatred that they have tried to repress.

She becomes a reminder of human cruelty and an emblem of human suffering. Claudia MacTeer Claudia narrates parts of The Bluest Eye, sometimes from a child’s perspective and sometimes from the perspective of an adult looking back. Like Pecola, Claudia suffers from racist beauty standards and material insecurity, but she has a loving and stable family, which makes all the difference for her. Whereas Pecola is passive when she is abused, Claudia is a fighter. When Claudia is given a white doll she does not want, she dissects and destroys it.

When she finds a group of boys harassing Pecola, she attacks them. When she learns that Pecola is pregnant, she and her sister come up with a plan to save Pecola’s baby from the community’s rejection. Claudia explains that she is brave because she has not yet learned her limitations—most important, she has not learned the self-hatred that plagues so many adults in the community. Claudia is a valuable guide to the events that unfold in Lorain because her life is stable enough to permit her to see clearly.

Her vision is not blurred by the pain that eventually drives Pecola into madness. Her presence in the novel reminds us that most black families are not like Pecola’s; most black families pull together in the face of hardship instead of fall apart. Claudia’s perspective is also valuable because it melds the child’s and the adult’s points of view. Her childish viewpoint makes her uniquely qualified to register what Pecola experiences, but her adult viewpoint can correct the childish one when it is incomplete. She is a messenger of suffering but also of hope.

Personal Assessment

unit 1: Personal Development Description of Unit This unit focuses on the importance of continuous personal and professional development through self-learning and reflection. The unit will enable learners to enhance the skills required for effective management, to meet work objectives and improve performance for future career development. Learners will be provided with the opportunity to identify their own development needs through conducting a skills audit and a personal development planning process.

Evidence to achieve this unit will be continuously provided throughout the learning programme, thereby enabling learners to take ownership of their future development needs. Learners will be able to demonstrate they have a regularly updated and realistic personal development plan that fits with their own preferred learning style. This unit will also enable learners to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of their learning on their career path. Summary of learning outcomes To achieve this unit a learner must: Explore the skills and techniques needed for effective time management 2 Examine the personal and professional skills needed to manage effectively 3 Carry out a personal skills audit and produce a personal development plan to review and maintain planned life and career goals. Assessment Activities Assignment 1: Personal Development Plan Personal development is an ongoing process through the course. Task 1 1. Personal Profile Analyse the operational activity in which you are involved, including regular daily, weekly and monthly activity, occasional initiatives and projects.

Prepare a full description of this activity, focusing on: the nature of the team that you are working in and/or managing; your personal role and responsibilities; your reporting relationships; the operational links with other individuals and departments; links with other businesses and external agencies. Submission: Please see introductory email. Task 2 2. Personal Development Journal Start your Personal Development Journal with an opening which includes: • A brief “personal” profile; Your personal work goals for the next one to three years; • A copy of your workplace Personal Profile; then Keep a continuous (at least weekly) record of your: • Progress on the programme; • team leader / manager / operational ~ performance in the workplace; and Write up an 8 weekly reflection on your: • General progress; • Progress on achieving your goals; • Improvement in your personal understanding / awareness / performance. Submission: at the end of every 8 weeks for the duration of the course. Assignment 2: Personal and Professional Skills Activity Sheet 1

What is your time type? How do you perceive time, and how is this reflected in your behaviour? Please answer the following questions by circling Yes or No for each item. |1 |When you enter a new situation, do you immediately pick out familiar elements and link them to your own past experiences? |Yes |No | |2 |Are you concerned with the background history of events and their potential effect on the future? |Yes |No | |3 |Do you usually handle emergencies well? |Yes |No | |4 |Do you frequently have ‘hunches’ about the future? Yes |No | |5 |Do you pride yourself on your rationality, your objectivity? |Yes |No | |6 |Do you get upset when you have to change a schedule? |Yes |No | |7 |Have you ever kept, or felt the urge to keep, a diary? |Yes |No | |8 |Do you hate to wait? |Yes |No | |9 |Do you often foresee things that others don’t? |Yes |No | |10 |Are you particularly successful at inspiring others with your ideas? |Yes |No | |11 |Can you ‘think on your feet’ – ie respond quickly to stimuli? Yes |No | |12 |Do you enjoy planning things, step by orderly step? |Yes |No | |13 |Do you avoid changes in your life that would sever ties with the past? |Yes |No | |14 |Do you have trouble being punctual? |Yes |No | |15 |Are you curious, thriving on new experiences? |Yes |No | |16 |Do you look forward to tomorrow more than you enjoy living for today? |Yes |No | |17 |Do you have a definite view of how things ought to be done that you apply fairly and consistently? Yes |No | |18 |Are you skilful at handling tools and materials? |Yes |No | |19 |When you have to make a decision, are you very conscious of how your decision will tie in with previous ones that you have made? |Yes |No | |20 |Do you find it frustrating to have to stick to a schedule? |Yes |No | |21 |Do you often have deep emotional reactions to situations in which you find yourself? |Yes |No | |22 |Do you tend to keep constantly busy even when there’s no external pressure forcing you to do so? Yes |No | |23 |When you have a negative first impression of someone, do you usually retain it even after you’ve got to know them better? |Yes |No | |24 |Are you slow to make decisions, thinking things through thoroughly before you act? |Yes |No | |25 |Do you usually know, without looking at a calendar or watch, what day of the week and time of the day it is? |Yes |No | |26 |When confronted with a problem, do you immediately envision the outcome you’d like to see – and then find the actual process of |Yes |No | | |getting there a bother? | | |27 |Do you generally take events as they are, rather than looking for causes or between-the-lines meanings? |Yes |No | |28 |Do you develop deep but short-lived enthusiasm? |Yes |No | To determine your ‘Time type’ please total your YES answers in the spaces that follow. There are no right or wrong answers, as such, and you will probably find that like most people you are a mix of the four types – Sensing, Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling – with perhaps a greater response to one or two of the types than to the others. |Total number of YES answers | |SENSING |X x x x x | |3, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 27 | | |INTUITIVE |X x x x | |4, 9, 10, 16, 20, 26, 28 | | |THINKING |X x x x x x | |2, 5, 6, 12, 17, 24, 25 | | |FEELING |X x x x x | |1, 7, 13, 14, 19, 21, 23 | | The maximum score for a preference is 7. Your scores which come closest to 7 probably represent your strongest preferences. These are descriptions of the four preferences: SENSING |• Time is now | | |• Short memories | | |• Poor forecasters | | |• Good decision-makers | | |• High energy | |INTUITIVE |• Time begins in the future | | |• Envisage the future | | |• Push actions towards it | | |• Dreams of what might be | |THINKING |• Time follows a straight line | | |• Abstract thinkers | | |• Time is an objective | | |• ‘What’ happened rather than ‘Why’ | | |• Time is a circle | |FEELING |• Take time personally | | |• The future seems unreal | | |• Similarities in past/present | | |• ‘That reminds me of the time when | Activity Sheet Two Daily Log Analysis Keep a time diary for one week – by analysing it. This will help you see how you actually spend your time. You may be very surprised! You can then identify what changes you want to make, with the reason why. Using the daily time log produce a log of all activities carried out in the workplace (eg Monday to Friday). Select a typical one week period, which avoids public holidays, sickness periods or leave periods and record your daily activities.

You will need to be fairly disciplined about this and include every time you change activities, even opening mail, making a cup of coffee, chatting with colleagues. Prioritise each activity using the following grading system: A, B, C, D: A = very important tasks — must-do tasks which you should either finish or make progress on during the day. These contribute significantly to your work goals. B = important but non-urgent — should do tasks but the time element is less important. You may need to make progress but not necessarily complete them. C = routine, non-essential tasks — would like to do tasks which have a minor effect on the company’s performance and your job, and can be delegated, put off or handled at a low priority time.

D = non-scheduled tasks (firefighting, emergencies, interruptions, demands from more senior personnel, etc). Note the difference between urgency and importance. You may wish to use codes to save time, eg M = meetings, P = phone calls, I = interruptions, etc. Analyse your week of recordings and comment on your analysis (eg do you spend time on planning and scheduling? Are you doing work which could be delegated? ). Daily Time Log Complete one of these records for each day. Jot down the activity and decide on the priority. Add any comments which will help you when it comes to analysing this record. Include any work you do away from the office, such as traveling. Day of the week: Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Date: | |Start |End |Duration |Activity |Priority |Comments | | | | | |A/B/C/D | | |We 7am |7:15 |15mins |Daily brief |A |Necessary for client | |7:15 |10:00 |2hrs 45mins |Cleaning of rooms |A |Necessary works | |10:00 |10:15 |15mins |Tea break |C | | |10:15 |10:45 |30mins |Meeting with engineer |A |Discussing vital removement of furnishings | | | | | | |to enable cleaning tasks | |10:45 |12:45 |2hrs |Cleaning of rooms |A |Necessary works | |12:45 |13:00 |15mins |Filling out daily log book |A |Necessary for lient | |Th 7am |7:15 |15mins |Daily brief |A |Necessary for client | |7:15 |10:15 |3hrs |Cleaning of rooms |A |Late finishing as priority rooms to be | | | | | | |completed | |10:15 |10:30 |15mins |Tea break |C | | |10:30 |12:45 |2hrs 15mins |Cleaning of public area |A |Deadline to meet as furnishings have to be | | | | | | |refitted for the opening of public area | |12:45 |13:00 |15mins |Filling out daily log book |A |Necessary for client | |Fr 7am |7:15 |15mins |Daily brief |A |Necessary for client | |7:15 |10:00 |2hrs 45mins |Cleaning of rooms |A |Necessary works | |10:00 |10:15 |15mins |Tea break |C | | |10:15 |12:00 |1hr 45mins |Cleaning of rooms |A |Necessary works | |12:00 |12:45 |45mins |Walk round and assess areas |C |Check cleanliness and advise cleaners | |12:45 |13:00 |15mins |Filling out daily log book |A |Necessary for client | |Mo 7am |7:15 |15mins |Daily brief |A |Necessary for client | |7:15 |9:45 |2hrs 30mins |Cleaning of rooms and public areas |A |Necessary works | |9:45 |10:00 |15mins |Meeting with manager |A |Discuss goings in hotel | |10:00 |10:15 |15mins |Tea break |C | |10:15 |10:30 |15mins |Make note of materials needed |B |Essential to allow correct cleaning methods| |10:30 |12:45 |2hrs 15mins |Cleaning of rooms |A |Necessary works | |12:45 |13:00 |15mins |Filling out daily log book |A |Necessary for client | |Tu 7am |7:15 |15mins |Daily brief |A |Necessary for client | |7:15 |10:00 |2hrs 45mins |Cleaning of rooms and public areas |A |Necessary works | |10:00 |10:15 |15mins |Tea break |C | | |10:15 |10:45 |30mins |Meeting with housekeeping |A |Guidelines for targets, safety and goings | | | | |department | |on throughout the week | |10:45 |11:00 |15mins |Ordering vital materials needed |B |Phoned supplier to organize delivery | |11:00 |12:45 |2hrs 15mins |Cleaning of rooms |A |Necessary works | |12:45 |13:00 |15mins |Filling out daily log book |A |Necessary for client | At the end of the week you need to analyse the results.

How did you spend your working week? Add up the time taken by each of the A, B, C and D tasks. Then calculate the percentage of time spent on each one. | |A task |B task |C task |D task | |Monday |5. 5 hrs |0. 25 hrs |0. 25 hrs | | | | | | | | |Tuesday |5. 5 hrs |0. 5 hrs |0. 25 hrs | | | | | | | | |Wednesday |5. 75 hrs | |0. 25 hrs | | | | | | | | |Thursday |5. 75 hrs | |0. 5 hrs | | | | | | | | |Friday |5 hrs | |1 hr | | | | | | | | |Saturday | | | | | | | | | | | |Weekly Totals |27. 5 hrs |0. hrs |2 hrs | | | | | | | | |% of working week |93% |1% |6% | | | | | | | | Are you spending your time on the right things? Analysis pointers • Are you in control of your time? • How much time do you spend on planned activities? • Are you so busy getting low-priority work out of the way that you do not get time for high priority activities? • How much time do you spend on tasks other people could do? • Are there areas which you want to change? What sort of changes do you want to make? Activity Sheet 3 Personal SWOT Analysis | | |STRENGTHS |WEAKNESSES | |List attributes you have which will help you achieve your goals. |Identify areas that concern or disappoint you. In what way do they not meet | | |your expectations (or those of | | |others)? | |Good at and enjoy solving problems |Emotional- having strong emotions with things and feelings. |Work well with others |Being centre of attention- get nervous and panic when all eyes are on me | |Good at learning swiftly |especially in crowds. | |Enthusiastic in all areas | | |Good at observing | | |Keen eye to detail | | |Good listener | | |Very fair | |Like challenges | | |Very thoughtful | | |Pro active | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |OPPORTUNITIES |THREATS | |What opportunities exist in your current work role? How could you build on |What threats are there to your current position? How might your weaknesses | |your strengths? How could you fully use the knowledge and skills gained on |be exposed?

How can you fill any gaps in your knowledge and skills? | |your learning programme? | | |Opportunities include working my way up in a higher position. into a |Threats to my current position include people doubting me and what i am | |supervisory role and into management. |capable of, making the wrong decisions and being unprofessional. | |I could build on my strengths by gaining necessary advice and knowledge from|Weaknesses may be exposed by not being able to cope with certain issues | |others, also practical learning in and around the workplace. |being unprepared and under certain pressures. |I could use knowledge and skills gained on learning programme by proving i |I could fill in gaps in knowledge and skills by learning my weaknesses and | |have the insight, education, skills, knowledge and advice to successfully |work hard towards making these my strengths | |excel with issues and confidence in the workplace | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Activity Sheet 4 Personal Development Plan Name: nicky bainboroughDate: 31st march 2010 Your plan should identify the learning need and how this will help the organisation achieve its goals. You need to consider all the resources needed to help you achieve your objectives, and build in realistic timescales for both achievements and review. |Learning and Development Need |How does this support the organisation’s goals? |Learning actions to be taken including resources |Date for achievement / review. | | | |needed to achieve them. | |emotions |This will not support organisations goals and will |To learn how to be mentally stronger and be less |july 2010 | | |more than likely cause problems. |emotional. May need advice on this issue. | | | | | | | | |again this will not support organisations goals and |Learn to be mentally stronger and comfortable around| | | |more than likely be a hindrance |groups.

May need advice on this issue | | |coping with being centre of attention | | |September 2010 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Activity Sheet 5 Learning styles inventory Educationalists have long realised that we learn in different ways. One widely used categorisation of different learning styles is that provided by Honey and Mumford.

They identify four different characters with quite different preferred learning styles — the Activist, the Pragmatist, the Reflector and the Theorist. Diagnostic tests exist to establish which learning style is most appropriate for you and to help you develop an action plan to develop your learning skills. The following exercise helps you establish whether you consider yourself a Pragmatist, Theorist, Activist or Reflector. You should give yourself a score between one and ten for how well each of the descriptors (bullet points) describes you. If you give it one, it is a very poor description of you. If you give it ten, it is a very good description of you. Definitions |Descriptors |Scores | |Pragmatist |• you are a practical person |10 | | |• you like to solve problems |10 | | |• you enjoy experimenting to improve techniques |10 | | |• you frequently come up with the answer to a | | | |problem |8 | | |• your only interest in theories is to see if they| | | |work in practice |8 | | |• you dislike situations where there is no clear, | | | |practical outcome |10 | | |• you work well to deadlines. | | | | | | |You learn well when: |8 | | |• you are expected to make practical decisions | | | |• using simulations and case studies | | | |• learning from proven good practice, using the |10 | | |examples and the expertise of others. | | | |10 | | | | | | | |10 | | |Pragmatist Total = |94 | |Theorist |• you seek a logical explanation for everything |6 | | |• you like to think through all the possible | | | |implications |4 | | |• you are only comfortable once you can account | | |for what is happening |10 | | |• some might regard you as a little detached | | | |• you prefer not to deal with very emotional |1 | | |situations | | | |• you prefer structured situations |10 | | |• you prefer dealing with facts rather than |5 | | |feelings. 10 | | |You learn well when: | | | |• you have to analyse the activity | | | |• carrying out a lengthy and detailed task that |10 | | |requires much thought |3 | | |• discussing the views and experience of others. | | | |10 | | | | | | | | | | |Theorist Total = |69 | |Activist: |• you are an enthusiast who will try anything |5 | | • you enjoy a challenge | | | |• you enjoy working with others |10 | | |• you prefer to be the centre of attention |10 | | |• long-term implementation is a weakness |1 | | |• you are easily bored | | | |• you don’t always put in enough thought before |5 | | |starting | | | |• you thrive on responsibility. |2 | | |You learn well when: |7 | | |• thrown in at the deep end (ie under pressure) | | | |• faced with role-plays and outward-bound |8 | | |activities. | | | |1 | | | | | | | |2 | | |Activist Total = |52 | |Reflector: |• you are a thoughtful person who thinks hard |10 | |before acting | | | |• you prefer to observe how things are done first |10 | | |• you make notes and ponder on them before acting | | | |• most of your discussions are about work, not |10 | | |chit chat | | | |• you find it difficult to make quick decisions |4 | | |• you would prefer not to take a leading role | | | |• you dislike having no time for reflection. 8 | | |You learn well when: | | | |• listening to (and discussing) the views and |1 | | |experience of others | | | |• carrying out a lengthy and detailed task that |10 | | |requires much thought. | | | | | | | |10 | | | | | | | |3 | | |Reflector Total = |66 | |Definitions |Descriptors | |Activist: |An Activist is an enthusiast who will try anything. They enjoy a challenge and working with others, preferring to be the | | |centre of attention. Their weaknesses are longer-term implementation (because they are easily bored) and perhaps not putting | | |in enough thought before they get started. | |Activists learn well when: | | |• presented with challenging activities | | |• working with others | | |• given responsibility | | |• thrown in at the deep end (ie under pressure) | | |• they are the centre of attention. | | |Activists will particularly benefit from training which involves role-plays and outward-bound activities. | |Activists learn less when: | | |• in a passive situation | | |• listening to others (eg a lecture) | | |• they feel they are not being listened to | | |• undertaking repetitive tasks | | |• carrying out a lengthy and detailed task, following the lead of others. | | |Watching an Activist open a present is like a piece of theatre. They tear into the wrapping with such verve that they may | | |even risk damaging the fragile contents.

They will only read the gift tag after they have opened the present (if they can | | |find it amongst the torn wrapping). | |Reflector |Reflector: A Reflector is a thoughtful person. They prefer to observe how things are done and to ponder on the notes they | | |make. Most of their discussions with others will relate to their current project rather than social pleasantries. Their main | | |weakness is in making quick decisions. They are unlikely to do well if they are forced into a leading role where quick | | |decisions are essential and there is no time for reflection. | |Reflectors learn well when: | | |• listening to others (eg a lecture) | | |• attention is not focused on them | | |• undertaking repetitive tasks with time for reflection | | |• following the lead of others | | |• carrying out a lengthy and detailed task that requires much thought. | |Reflectors will particularly benefit from training which involves plenty of opportunities for contemplation and discussion of| | |the views and experience of others. | | |Reflectors learn less well when: | | |• presented with challenging activities | | |• working with others | | • given responsibility | | |• thrown in at the deep end. (ie under pressure) | | |• they are the centre of attention. | | |A Reflector will be happy for others to open their presents first. They will note what is happening and consider the | | |implications before opening their own presents. They are likely to keep a list of their presents, noting who sent the gift | | |before opening it. Once they have (slowly) opened the present, they note what it is next to the name.

They savour all aspects| | |of | | |the experience. | |Pragmatist |Pragmatist: A Pragmatist is a practical person who likes to solve problems. They enjoy | | |experimenting to improve techniques. They frequently come up with the answer to a problem. Their only interest in theories is| | |to see if they work in practice. They dislike situations where there is no clear, practical outcome. | |Pragmatists learn well when: | | |• they are expected to make practical decisions | | |• timescales are tight | | |• they must (quickly) find better ways to do things | | |• learning from proven good practice | | |• learning from examples and the expertise of others | | |• they are expected to plan the next step. | | |Pragmatists will particularly benefit from training which involves simulations and case studies. | |Pragmatists learn less well when: | | |• they are expected to come up with new ideas themselves | | |• the practical relevance of what they are doing is unclear | | |• they are expected to work out why a technique works (ie reflect on it). | | |A Pragmatist is constantly searching for the most efficient way to open a package. Whilst opening their presents they will | | |enjoy experimenting with different methods of unwrapping. |Theorist: |A Theorist seeks a logical explanation for everything. When presented with a new way of working they prefer to take time to | | |think through all the possible implications. They are only comfortable once they have developed a theory that accounts for | | |what is happening. Their main weakness is that others regard them as rather detached and they may not be good in dealing with| | |very emotional situations. They dislike unstructured situations and also | | |dealing with subjective (rather than objective) information. | |Theorists learn well when: | | |• analysis of the activity is required | | |• there is chance to ask questions | | |• the activity is methodical | | |• in lectures | |• there is a systematic course of study linking many areas | | |• exploring complex issues and interrelationships | | |• attention is not focused on them | | |• undertaking repetitive tasks with time for reflection | | |• following the lead of others | | |• carrying out a lengthy and detailed task that requires much thought. | | |Theorists will particularly benefit from training that involves plenty of opportunities for contemplation and discussion of | | |the views and experience of others. | |Theorists learn less well when: | | |• they are not stretched | | |• they are expected to show their emotions | | |• there is no structure | | |• there is no context | | |• there is no time for analysis | | |• the purpose of the activity is not clear. | | |A Theorist is aware of many different ways of unwrapping presents and has a clear view of the best way of doing it. They will| | |think through any method they don’t fully understand and work out the implications of using it. From this they will develop a| | |clear idea of how to start the unwrapping process. | Activity Sheet 6 How much stress do we need? Stress is not necessarily a bad thing, and often it helps us to get organised and accomplish tasks.

However, sometimes when we are overloaded with work, the stress becomes too great and this is a very unpleasant experience. Equally we can have too little stress and become bored and listless. • What do you like doing that causes you stress? Trying to win and/or succeed • What do you not like doing that is stressful? Rushing • What things make you bored, fed up and listless? Boring tasks and meaningless things • What do you like doing that is not stressful? Relaxing and spending quality time with people and things Identify your stress signals Below are listed some examples of stress signals. Please continue the list with those signals you experience more strongly. Immediate stress signals |Long-term stress signals | |• Touchy/sulky |• Headaches/migraines | |• Heartburn/hiccups |• Restless nights | |• Tense, aching neck/shoulder muscles |• Depression | |• Smoking more |• Complete lack of interest in food | |• Eating less/more |-loss of hair | |-biting nails x |-heart problems | |-biting inside of mouth x |-personal problems | |-feeling anxious x |-breakdowns |-feeling worried | | |-wanting to be left alone | | | | | | | | | | | | | | When you have added all you can to these lists, choose three signals which you experience most often, and underline them to remind you that they are your personal warning signs. Support materials Books Bailey K et al — Pursuing Professional Development (Heinle & Heinle, 2000) ISBN: 0838411304

Earley P and Bubb S — Leading and Managing Continuing Professional Development (Paul Chapman Publications, 2004) ISBN: 0761943226 Harrison R — Learning and Development (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002) ISBN: 0852929277 Megginson D — Continuing Professional Development (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2003) ISBN: 0852929900 Moon J — Reflection in Learning and Professional Development: Theory and Practice (RoutledgeFalmer, 2000) ISBN: 074943452X Mumford A and Gold J — Management Development (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2004) ISBN: 0852929846 Treacy D — Successful Time Management in a Week (Hodder Stoughton, 1998) ISBN: 0340705477

Movie Industry Analysis

Movie Industry Analysis Movie Industry Analysis The global motion picture industry has annual revenues of approximately $60 billion USD. • The studio business has a historical rate of return of around 13% per year, which is likely to increase as digital media creates new opportunities for the distribution of film properties • US box office for 2005 was $8. 99 billion. For the fourth straight year, domestic cumulative box office from all studios continues to hold near $9 billion • Worldwide box office held steady at $23. 4 billion in 2005 but reflects a 46% growth over 2000. • In 2005, PG and PG-13 films accounted for 85% of the year’s top 20 films. • The average cost to make and market an MPAA film was $96. 2 million in 2005. This includes $60 million in negative costs and $36. 2 million in marketing costs. • In 2005, the average ticket price for the US was $6. 41. This represents a 3. 2% increase over the 2004 average ticket price of $6. 21. In 2005, the total of new films released increased by 5. 6% from 2004, with 549 new films versus 520 in 2004. The US film and TV production and distribution industry includes about 9,000 companies with combined annual revenues of $50 billion. Large companies include Walt Disney, Sony/MGM, Paramount, Twentieth Century Fox, Universal, and Warner Brothers. These studios are generally part of large publicly traded media companies.

The industry is highly concentrated: the 50 largest companies account for about 80 percent of industry revenue. There are also independent production companies, and a large number of companies that provide services to the industry including creative talent, equipment, technical expertise, and various technical production and distribution services. Demand is driven by consumer spending, which in turn depends on consumer income. The profitability of individual companies depends on creativity and cost control.

Large companies often have long-term contractual relationships with actors and directors, and can maintain a permanent staff of technical Major revenue streams for feature films include: box office ticket sales, DVD sales and rental, pay-per-view, cable, network TV, TV syndication, ancillary markets (offshore oil rigs, military, airplanes), and new media (high-def, wi-fi,podcasts. ) Revenue streams endure over roughly a 60 month period with the US box office, international box office, and DVD sales and rental fees generally contributing between 65% and 85% of the total revenues.

Societal Forces on Management

Discuss how societal forces influence the practice and theory of management. Do you think management techniques are a response to these forces? (Samson and Daft, 2009:78). Management, as defined by Davidson et al. (2006), is “a set of activities including planning, decision making, organizing, leading and controlling directed at an organization’s resources (human, financial, physical and information) to achieve organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner” (p. 5). According to Bartol et al. 2007), societal forces in general environment are factors that impacts on the organizations out of its control. Societal forces are often listed as economical, technological, socio-cultural, political-legal and international forces (Bartol et al. , 2007). Evaluating each of these forces in a business management is crucial for a manager to carry out management theory and practices. Economical: Bartol et al. (2007) define economic element as activities involves profit gaining, buying abilities, spending patterns and distribution of wealth in a system.

Many organizations faces economic influences that beyond their control and predictions. Inflation, recession, interest rates, currency exchange rates and unemployment are few of the important economic forces in business management (Bartol et al. , 2007). Wessels (2006) explain that during inflation, general prices of goods and services will increase. As a result, a company must adjust the prices of its products or services in order to compensate the difference in cost due to higher prices of raw materials (Wessels, 2006).

Company may also need to adjust wages or salaries of its workers to reflect the real cost of living on that period of time unless there is a long term contract that fixed an agreed amount (Wessels, 2006). Davidson et al. (2006) state that when unemployment rate increases, buying power of consumer decreases because less people are working. During economic downturns, it will be a lot harder to find a job and companies tend to redundant some of its workers in order to save cost (Wessels, 2006). Wessels (2006) also mentioned that recession could occur when unemployment rate continues to rise.

Davidson et al. (2006) point out that a company may force to pay the bank a larger sum of money than it expected due to increase in interest rates. This often causes delay in expansion of business (Davidson et al. , 2006). However, some companies may take advantage of the high interest rates in foreign market and shift investment offshore that offers better return (Davidson et al. , 2006). In converse, lower interest rates encourage smaller business to borrow loans from bank for business upgrade and investments (Davidson et al. , 2006).

When economy reaches its full potential, Ford Motor benefits from moderate unemployment in Australia and consumer demands for automobile is strong (Davidson et al. , 2006). There will be no issues in cutting labor cost and production can be maximized. Low inflation rates allow company to maximize its sales due to lower cost in resources and raw materials (Davidson et al. , 2006). The company takes advantages to improve production process with equipments and plant upgrade when the interest rates are low. During the global economic crisis that happened in late 2008, many organizations were being affected.

General Motors Corp. which also known as Chrysler LLC, faced crisis when there was insufficient fund to operate the business (McKee, 2008). The government refused to offer financial assistance and forced the company to face bankruptcy in early 2009 (McKee, 2008). The company managed to survive by filing bankruptcy protection after it made a deal with Fiat and its former owner Cerberus lost its 80. 1% share (BBC News, 2009). Technological: The advance of science and technology nowadays creates much more opportunities to most organizations.

Many organizations with higher vision are willing to invest a large sum of money into research and development. This is because technology not only improves quality of the products but also improves process and production in which, as a result, saves cost in long term. There are some smaller corporate fail to take advantage of the new technology available due to limited financial resources and low profit margin. This often causes failure in commercializing innovative products in smaller companies. Hence, it is crucial to ensure innovations from product developments are market directed.

The invention of the bar code reader is one the best example for this. Marsh Supermarket in Ohio was founded in 1930 with five organization’s goals (Marsh Supermarkets, 2010). According to the company website, these are “first choice shopper”, “market leaders”, “committed to customers and their needs”, “exceptional shopping experience” and “support and improves the community” (Marsh Supermarkets, 2010). In 1974, the Marsh Supermarket in Ohio was the first food retail store that utilized UPC Scanner, which is the barcode scanner in checkout (Marsh Supermarkets, 2010).

With the use of barcode scanner and computer, this facilitates the entire checkout process by giving the sum for customers’ purchases, receipts printing and even inventory control for stock taking. Clearly, the Marsh Supermarket converted this breakthrough innovation into excellence services. In 1995, Marsh Supermarket introduced Marsh Fresh IDEA card to reward its loyal customers by giving discounts electronically at the checkout (Marsh Supermarkets, 2010). Marsh Supermarket also offers home delivery in conjunction with telephone and online shopping.

One of the operating imperatives of Marsh Supermarket is “innovative solutions” (Marsh Supermarkets, 2010). The Supermarket values the advance of technology and readily accepts any positive changes in the organizations. With the implement of innovations and technology, Marsh Supermarket achieved their missions in an efficient and effective way. In this case, technology has become one of the most important components in the success of Marsh Supermarket with 102 Supermarkets across Indiana and Ohio region. Socio-cultural: A successful multinational organization must identify the socio-cultural variables in its environment.

Socio-cultural is defined as “attitudes, values, norms, beliefs, behaviors and typical regional demographic trends” (Bartol et al. , 2007, p. 47). Fast food corporations are often affected by socio-cultural dimensions. It is predicted that there will be 6% increase in household spending on fast foods due to demographic development between year 2000 and 2020 (Stewart et al. , 2003). Social status, occupations and income also affects the consumer behaviors on fast food spending. Stewart et al. (2003) points out that a single manager who work longer hour will spend more on fast foods compare to home-cooked meal due to time constraints.

In contrary, a husband who work 40 hours a week in a typical company will rather have healthy home-cooked meal prepared by his wife than having fast food. Population should also be taken into considerations when operating fast food restaurants. As sensory of older population tends to diminish, foods with bolder flavors are preferable (Stewart et al. , 2003). Steward et al. (2003) also emphasize that a household without dependents will also cause spending to increase by 1 to 2% further per person. There is also slight decrease in fast foods spending per person, which is about 2% per capita, due to aging population (Steward et al. 2003). McDonald, operating more than 30,000 fast food outlets over 120 countries across the world is very well aware of socio-cultural influenced on its corporation. This can be seen while McDonald’s foreign franchisees advertise according to the culture and languages within their regions. Some menu modifications are also used to attract consumers with different religions and cultural background. As a market-oriented organization, McDonald’s Corporation made its commitment to adapt the diversity of the customers around the world (McDonald’s Corporation, 2010).

The corporation introduced McCafe as co-branding to its McDonald’s fast food outlets to attract different target customers and maximizing its sales (Wright, 2007). McDonald’s Corporation achieves its success by understanding the influences of population’s behavior, social, cultural and beliefs. Political-legal (Legislative changes): All organizations affected by political-legal forces. Some laws and regulations are being set by governments to control business activity of organizations.

Legal system is often closely linked to political issues as most government regulations formed under the influences of political pressure (Bartol et al. , 2007). There are food law and regulations in food industry to protect public health and safety as well as facilitate food trades among the world (Freeland-Graves & Peckham, 1996). Government bodies in United States such as USDA (U. S. Department of Agriculture), FDA (Food and Drug Administration), FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Services) and etc are responsible for regulations concerning food supply to United States.

Yum! Brands Incorporate, which is the parent company of KFC has Supplier Code of Conduct to ensure all its products compliant to food regulations and other legal requirements (KFC, 2010). There are also legislations, organizations and government bodies responsible to protect the rights of workers. In Australia, Fair Work Australia, which is national workplace relations tribunal, is responsible to administer the Fair Work Act and deal with organizations that registered under this Act (Fair Work Australia, n. d. . The Australian Workers Union (AWU) is also formed in 1886 and registered under Fair Work Australia, to represents the workers when dealing with employers concerning the workers welfare (Fair Work Australia, n. d. ). Most companies also have policies in placed to avoid workplace harassment, discrimination, unfair dismissal and etc. iiNet is an internet provider company in Perth and its mission is to provide the best internet services in market with quality, plain-speaking customer service (iiNet, n. d. ).

The company has a series of plans to make sure it achieves its goals by establishing its own network, offering excellent products and services to customers according to their needs (iiNet, n. d. ). In order to ensure products and services are up to standards, iiNet is ISO (International Organization for Standardization) certified (iiNet, n. d. ). In November 2008, seven movies studio and television network filed a lawsuit against iiNet for allowing its customers to download pirated movies and shows (Moses, 2008). Australian Federation Against Copyright Theft (AFACT) involved in investigations on this matter (Moses, 2008).

The lawsuit was dismissed due to insufficient evidence to prove the company authorized its user to download copyright materials and distributing them illegally (Moses, 2008). International influences (Globalization): Managing a business internationally requires managers to deal with larger and broader diversity. This often involves interactions with people from different cultures and backgrounds, different social norms, languages, and legislation. In short, international influences are closely related to socio-cultural and legal-political forces in larger spectrum.

McDonald’s Corporation as discussed above is a multinational organization which successfully indentified the influences of socio-cultural forces to its organization. Its operation of franchised outlets in foreign countries must also comply with the laws and regulations of those foreign countries. Many might think that international forces only affect multinational organizations which operate in more than one country. International forces, in fact, also impact on businesses which operate in only one country (Davidson et al. , 2006). Davidson et al. (2006) point out that a company who provides services and products