Category: Essays

Scholarship Application

APPLICATION FOR SCHOLARSHIP I hereby apply for the NETTPAD EDUCATION SCHOLARSHIP. I would like to state few out of the many reasons why I believe I deserve this scholarship. Firstly, I am the first male in a family of six. My parents fall to the lower middle class salary earner, with a total income of Thirty eight thousand, five hundred naira per annum (N38,500/annum). This salary scheme made feeding and accommodation more difficult to be combined with my education. This condition makes the family poor and indigent.

If I am awarded this scholarship, it will make it easier for me to function well in my educational goals. Secondly, I think I deserve this scholarship because I had worked hard most of my life academically. I put so much effort in anything I choose to do, or any task accorded to me. My goals in life are often extremely high. I base my goals on the quote “Shoot for the moon: even if you lose, you will land among the stars”. When I set goals for myself, I do everything in my power to achieve them, and if I happen to fall short of my goals in life, I take pride in myself and give glory to God, knowing that I did my best.

I think that the drive I have to succeed, and to impart knowledge into the life of the ones coming behind me is one of many reasons why I deserve this scholarship. Furthermore, I think I deserve this scholarship because I always strife to get myself motivated to learn, despite all odds and learning difficulties. As a student of Mathematics and Education, I need this scholarship to help finance my project-works, my assignments and my researches. The motivation and aspiration to pay back what will be imparted in me academically as a qualified teacher, deserves a reasonable financial aid like the Scholarship.

If I am awarded this scholarship, it will be easier to focus more on my academics. In addition, I involved myself in a project, which had been implemented but I find difficult to accomplish due to financial difficulties. The project is my determination to organise FREE mathematics tutorial for secondary school students, in preparation for one exam or the other, such as the O’levels and UTME exams so that they can perform well and achieve their goals academically. If I am awarded this scholarship, I believe this goal will be strongly implemented and accomplished.

In addition to all these, I think I have made some laudable achievements which I think can make me worthy of this scholarship. Right from my secondary school days, I took part in a lot of extra-curricular activities. I have won different prizes for my school as a member of the school’s debating society. This award brought the only school in my community to limelight. I served as the president of Science and Mathematics club, President of Christian organization, all in my secondary school. I also served as the secretary of the press club, with the success of many publications of magazines and newsletters in my college.

To crown it all, I am also serving as the P. R. O. of the Federation of Ijesa Students’ Union (FISU) in my current institution. These are just few of my achievements. I know I can do better if I am aided with this scholarship. In conclusion, I deserve this scholarship because I meet the requirements of this scholarship, which includes being poor and indigent, registered student of a renowned tertiary institution in Nigeria and perhaps a good academic performance. All evidences are attached with this letter. I will be glad and grateful if I am favourably considered. THANKS.

Water of Crystallization and Hydrated Mgso4

Tony FernandezElizabeth Nehme05. 05. 11Period 2 Hydrated Crystals Lab Pre-Lab Questions Observations of hydrated MgSO4| Shiny, clear, chunks of crystals, white | Mass of crucible and lid| 11. 36 grams| Mass of crucible, lid, and hydrated MgSO4| 14. 38 grams| Mass of hydrated MgSO4| 3. 00 grams| Mass of crucible, lid, and anhydrous MgS04| 12. 82 grams| Mass of anhydrous MgSO4| 1. 45 grams| Mass of water in hydrated MgSO4| 1. 55 grams| Moles of anhydrous MgSO4| 0. 0120 moles|

Moles of water in hydrated MgSO4| 0. 0860 moles| Observation of anhydrous MgSO4| Different shade of white, more thicker and solid; powder-like| 3. To obtain the mass of water, first measure the mass of the crucible with the lid and anhydrous MgSO4 and then obtain the mass of the crucible with the lid once again and hydrated MgSO4; after that, subtract the two sums and the result is the mass of the water. To obtain the mass of the anhydrous MgSO4, measure the mass of the crucible lid, then subtract this measurement from the mass of the crucible, lid, and anhydrous MgSO4 4.

To convert the mass of the anhydrous MgSO4 and water to moles, divide them by the molar mass. 5. To obtain the formula for the hydrate from the moles of anhydrous MgSO4 and the moles of water, obtain the ratio of moles of water to moles of the anhydrous product, MgSO4. Analyze & Conclude 1. Approximately 7 moles (0. 0860 moles H20/ 0. 0120 moles MgSO4) 2. The observation of the hydrated MgSO4 was shiny, see-through, and chunky amounts of crystals.

While the observation for the anhydrous MgSO4 came out to be a lighter, more different shade of white, unclear, and powder-like. 3. The method used in the experiment may not be suitable for determining the water of hydration for all hydrates because, when heating it up, some of the hydrates may be lost/decay along the process. 4. Leaving the MgSO4 to heat longer could have reduced this error. 5. It may have absorbed water if the anhydrous crystals were left uncovered overnight, (note the prefix ‘hydro’, which led me to this assumption).

Real-World Chemistry 1. Yes because an anhydrous substance can only hold so much until it reaches its limit. Like a sponge for example, it soaks up all the liquid, and when it can’t hold anymore, it just feels damp and wet from all the extra liquid. If the anhydrous packets exceed their limit, they will lose their purpose afterwards and will no longer be able to sustain anymore. 2. Because the mineral was mixed with water, it can cause the anhydrous substance to be hydrated.

Physical Education Philosophy

KIN 103 Mr. Cramer Nov 12 2010 Physical education class instruction should be designed for all students. I believe that every skill, activity, and game should be taught with the non-athlete in mind. Sometimes those students get pushed to the back because they are not the most talented. My philosophy of physical education deals with students becoming physically fit. The major reason for having physical education in schools is to lead the students toward better lifestyles.

The plan as a physical educator is to have students physically in shape, by their exit of high school. This takes work but it can be done. A good activity that could be introduced in physical education programs is a ropes course. Rope courses are great for students to get into the teamwork mentality. This could help students be dependable on each other and trust each other. Education is not only a necessity, but a major part of life. Educators need to make students realize that they are accomplishing something every time a fact is embedded in their head.

A good way of letting children know they are learning is by positive feedback. Positive feedback can work wonders with struggling students, as well as achieving students. If teachers made an effort to make their classes as enjoyable as possible for learning, students may eventually love attending physical education classes. Every student has the ability to learn. Some students learn at a more rapid pace than others. The job as a physical educator is to bring out the best in each student.

Physical education teachers need to know where every student stands on their ability to learn. Each student has his/her on preference as to what he/she wants to learn. We need to introduce more activities that females like to do such as: dance, aerobics, and gymnastics. Gymnastics was once a big part of physical education, but has since diminished. Rollerblading could also be a good sport for both sexes and good also fit in as lifetime activity. Students in physical education should know the benefits of living a healthy lifestyle.

In conclusion everyone has a different philosophy about education. But most of them nowadays consist of the same qualities. So things need to change if I want physical education to fit my philosophy. Hopefully more teachers will start to get a “physically fit” philosophy and stop rolling out basketballs in every class. If this could be taught around the country then people could be better fit physically. If the population is in better shape then doctor bills will diminish and the government won’t spend so much money on health care.

Theorist: Benjamin Bloom

THEORIST: Benjamin Bloom Benjamin S. Bloom was a Jewish-American educational psychologist; he was born in Lansford, Pennsylvania on 21st February, 1913. Benjamin Bloom attended the Pennsylvania State University where he obtained a bachelor’s and master’s degrees in 1935. He then moved to the University of Chicago and completed a Ph. D. in education in 1942, and served as a member of the Board of Examinations from 1940 – 1943. In 1944 he was appointed as the Instructor of Educational Psychology; he remained at the University for the next thirty years during which time he was appointed Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor (1970).

Benjamin also served as an educational advisor to the governments of Israel, India and many other nations. Benjamin Bloom died at the age of eighty six at his home in Chicago on 13th September 1999. He was survived by his wife Sophie, and his two sons David and Jonathan. Benjamin Bloom made great contributions in the area of education. A great deal of his research focused on the study of educational objectives. Together with a group of cognitive psychologists at the University of Chicago, Bloom developed his theory on taxonomy and his book Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain was published in 1956.

His theory on taxonomy is his most significant work; it promoted the concept that any given task favors one of three psychological domains: Cognitive, affective, or psychomotor. The cognitive domain deals with the ability to process and utilize (as a measure) information in a meaningful way. The affective domain is concerned with the attitudes and feelings that result from the learning process. Lastly, the psychomotor domain involves manipulative or physical skills (New World Encyclopedia).

Like Abraham Maslow and his hierarchy of needs, Bloom believed that in each of his psychological domains there are levels of learning, and an individual must be able to perform at the lower level before they can proceed to a higher level. In the affective domain there are five levels of learning, beginning with receiving which is the lowest level. At this level student passively pays attention; no learning can occur without this level. Next there is responding where students actively participate in the learning process. Valuing is when the student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information.

Next come organizing; the student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating, and elaborating on what has been learned. Finally there is characterizing which is when a particular value or belief influences the behavior of the student in such a way that it can now be labeled as a characteristic (New World Encyclopedia). The sub-categories for skills in the psychomotor domain were not actually written by Bloom or his colleagues, but by someone by the name of Harrow.

The categories he listed were reflex movements- automatic and involuntary reaction to a stimulus; fundamental movements such as walking or grasping; perception, which is a response to a stimuli. Then physical abilities such as strength and agility are developed when stamina has been developed. Skilled movements such as sports or acting are learned at this time. The no discursive communication is the last category in this domain, and it is where body language such as facial expressions and gestures are developed (New World Encyclopedia).

Bloom’s cognitive domain was based on the belief that cognitive operations can be organized into six progressively more intricate levels. The first level, knowledge, is defined as the remembering of previously learned material. Bloom held that knowledge is the lowest level of learning outcomes in this domain. Next there is comprehension, the ability to grasp the meaning of material and goes just beyond the knowledge level. Comprehension is the lowest level of understanding. Comprehension is followed by application, which basically is the ability to take prior knowledge and apply it in new, concrete principles and theories.

In analysis, the next area of the taxonomy, the learning outcomes require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of material. The next level is synthesis, the ability to put parts together to make a new whole; creative behaviour is learned on this level. Evaluation is all about the ability to ascertain the value of material for a specified purpose using definite criteria. Learning outcomes in this area are the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they incorporate or contain elements of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, and synthesis.

In addition, they contain conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. The activity of inventing encourages the four highest levels of learning–application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation–in addition to knowledge and comprehension (Mary Bellis). Another one of Benjamin Bloom’s contribution to education is his theory on Mastery Learning. Given the opportunity, Bloom believed that all learners can succeed. His method of Mastery Learning called for the breaking down of skills into subskills and only proceeding to the next skill upon mastery of the previous skill.

He believed that Mastery Learning can be achieved this way with additional strategies such as tutoring, small group work, programmed instruction, games, and audiovisual materials (Taxonomy of Educational Objectives). The concept of mastery learning is attributed to the behaviorism principles of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning states that behaviours change in frequency and duration due to consequences. The focus of mastery learning is on explicit or obvious behaviours that can be observed and measured. Teachers of mastery learning need to organize smaller lessons that are tactful and discreet, so that it makes sense to the students.

In general, mastery learning programs have been shown to lead to higher achievement in all students as compared to more traditional forms of teaching (Anderson, 2000; Gusky & Gates, 1986). Despite the empirical evidence, many mastery programs in schools have been replaced by more traditional forms of instruction due to the level of commitment required by the teacher and the difficulty in managing the classroom when each student is following an individual course of learning (Anderson, 2000; Grittner, 1975. (Ask). Benjamin Bloom’s contribution to education was quite extensive.

His work led to an upsurge of interest in early childhood education, and was instrumental in promoting the ‘Head Start’ program where the main theme was education for everyone. Bloom was instrumental in shifting the instructional emphasis from teaching facts to teaching students how to use the knowledge they had learned. He revolutionized education through his thinking that, backed by significant research evidence, that what any person can learn, all can learn, except perhaps for the lowest one or two percent of students (New World Encyclopedia).

Bloom was very instrumental in creating the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). His work in this institution impacted significantly on efforts to improve students’ learning in several countries. Bloom also developed the MESA (Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistical Analysis) program which was designed to prepare scholars to design genuinely informative and educationally useful evaluation practices (New World Encyclopedia). Bloom’s contribution to education as well as the effect it has on the lives of students and teachers alike is of great significance.

His contributions will always be remembered. Word count – 1185 Works cited New World Encyclopedia: Organizing knowledge for happiness, prosperity and world piece. Benjamin Bloom, April 2008. • www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Benjamin_Bloom Bellis, Mary. Benjamin Bloom – Critical Thinking Skills: About. com:inventors. 2010 www. inventors. about. com/library/lessons/bl_benjamin_bloom. htm Benjamin Bloom Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Instructional Development Timeline. www. my-ecoach. com/idtimeline/theory/bloom. html Mastery Learning. Ask. www. ask. com/wiki/Benjamin_Bloom? qsrc=3044

Adjustment Strategies Unit 6 “Resisting Persuasion and Compliance Tactics”

Adjustment Strategies Unit 6 “Resisting Persuasion and Compliance Tactics” Recognize and Resist the Influence of Commitment and Consistency Pressures by Jody Curtis Abstract “Recognize and resist the influence of commitment and consistency pressures”. Be alert to tactics that pressure you to do what you do not want to do. If someone is urging you to follow up on an earlier commitment, ask yourself a key question, “Knowing what I know now, if I could go back in time, would I make the same commitment? (Santrock, 2006, Page 185)

The reason I chose this strategy is because I think that many of us could benefit from this subject. There are times when we all make a choice based on something we find out later was too good to be true. Then we are left with the fallout of that decision. This can create a hardship on others around us simply because of the consequences of our own poor judgment. People tend to copy the things they see others doing. For example one or more people may look in a particular direction because people are staring at something.

So others around them will look to see what they are staring at. This is a form of Social proof. Which is otherwise known as the bystander effect. They all look out of simple curiosity, it was never the intention to look that way but the need to do so out of simple curiosity was merely overwhelming, therefore they did. Everyday we are confronted by persuasion. Food makers want us to buy their newest products, while movie studios want us to go see the latest blockbusters. Because persuasion is such a pervasive component of our lives, t is easy to overlook how we are influenced by outside sources. (Cherry, 2009) How many videos have you bought because the advertisement was just so convincing that you had to have it? Many movies come out for a rental and you can watch it and return it at a much lower dollar amount. Yet for some reason you needed to own this piece of film. So you bought it and now it is collecting dust on the shelf and your money is gone. Have you ever thought before you bought these videos that you may only watch it once or twice and renting it might be cheaper?

Another very effective persuasive method appeals to the need to be popular, prestigious, or similar to others. Television commercials provide many example of this type of persuasion, where viewers are encouraged to purchase items so they can be like everyone else or be like a well-known or well-respected person. Television advertisements are a huge source of exposure to persuasion considering that some estimates claim that the average American watches between 1,500 to 2,000 hours of television every year. (Cherry, 2009)

How many diets are on the market today that are simply gimmicks that cost people billions of dollars every year due to the fact that they are looking for that quick fix to the obesity problem many face today. Diets fail because the person trying to loose weight is looking for the perfect pill to solve all of their problems. That is why infomercials make so much money. They all promise great rewards. In the end the buyer is left feeling worse than they would have if they simply saved their money and started an exercise routine that they were comfortable with.

Conformity, compliance, persuasion, dissonance, reactance, guilt and fear arousal, modeling and identification are some of the staple social influence ingredients well studied in psychological experiments and field studies. In some combinations, they create a powerful crucible of extreme mental and behavioral manipulation when synthesized with several other real-world factors, such as charismatic, authoritarian leaders, dominant ideologies, ocial isolation, physical debilitation, induced phobias, and extreme threats or promised rewards that are typically deceptively orchestrated, over an extended time period in settings where they are applied intensively. (Zimbardo, 2002) If we were to evaluate a situation and make an informed decision before committing to something, that we have no real knowledge on, then we all would be better off. There is no real threat to saying no to something. We all should take a stand back and access the situation for what it truly is. Outside influences are part of our everyday life.

As long as you do not allow others to take control over your own insecurities, then they cannot convince you to do something you were uncomfortable with in the first place. References Santrock, J. W. (2006, Page 185). Human Adjustment. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Cherry, K, (2009), Article titled “The Psychology of Persuasion” Retrieved from: http://psychology. about. com/od/socialpsychology/a/persuasiontech. htm Zimbardo, P, M. D. , (2002), Article titled “Mind Control: psychological reality or mindless rhetoric? ” Retrieved from: http://www. apa. org/monitor/nov02/pc. aspx

Chemical in Gredients of Vienna Sausages

The common chicken canned sausage is made up of mechanically separated chicken, water, salt, corn syrup, flavourings, sugar sodium erythorbate, paprika and sodium nitrate. For sausage making phosphates improve flavour, reduce the loss of moisture, increase tenderness while improving firmness, and aids in colour development. Corn syrup is used to hold water and binds the meat together, aids in the fermentation process and helps cut the harshness of the salt. Salt is a very important ingredient in sausage.

Salt is a preservative, not enough is added to the meat to fully preserve the sausage or make it fully safe from bacterial growth. Salt is added to sausages for three main reasons; taste, texture, and to aid in the curing process. Sodium Erythorbate is produced from sugars derived from sources such as beets, sugar cane and corn and is used in accelerating the curing reaction. Water as an ingredient is called “added water” or sometimes referred to as “free water”.

This is different from the water already in the meat that is mostly restricted in its use by either chemical or physical forces – this is called “bound water. ” Water is used in sausage making to add moisture to the meat. Added water will cook out of the meat before the meat’s natural moisture (bound water). Every ingredient depends on the other to help create a good quality product, however depending on how much of these ingredients are used in comparison to the actual amount of meat (percentage) will define the quality and how healthy it is.

A Horse and Two Goats Summary

First published in the Madras, India, newspaper The Hindu in 1960, ‘‘A Horse and Two Goats’’ did not achieve a wide international audience until 1970 when it became the title story of R. K. Narayan’s seventh collection of short stories, A Horse and Two Goats and Other Stories. It reached an even wider audience in 1985 when it was included in Under the Banyan Tree, Narayan’s tenth and best-selling collection. By this time Narayan was well established as one of the most prominent Indian authors writing in English in the twentieth century.

The story presents a comic dialogue between Muni, a poor Tamil-speaking villager, and a wealthy English-speaking businessman from New York. They are engaged in a conversation in which neither can understand the other’s language. With gentle humor, Narayan explores the conflicts between rich and poor, and between Indian and Western culture. Narayan is best known for his fourteen novels, many of which take place in the fictional town of Malgudi. Many of the stories in his thirteen short story collections also take place in Malgudi, but ‘‘A Horse and Two Goats’’ does not.

This accounts for the fact that the story has attracted very little critical commentary; however, all of the attention it has drawn has been positive. The story is seen as a fine example of Narayan’s dexterity in creating engaging characters and humorous dialogue, but it is not considered one of his greatest works. A Horse and Two Goats Summary Set in Kritam, ‘‘probably the tiniest’’ of India’s 700,000 villages, ‘‘A Horse and Two Goats’’ opens with a clear picture of the poverty in which the protagonist Muni lives.

Of the thirty houses in the village, only one, the Big House, is made of brick. The others, including Muni’s, are made of ‘‘bamboo thatch, straw, mud, and other unspecified materials. ’’ There is no running water and no electricity, and Muni’s wife cooks their typical breakfast of ‘‘a handful of millet flour’’ over a fire in a mud pot. On this day, Muni has shaken down six drumsticks (a local name for a type of horse radish) from the drumstick tree growing in front of his house, and he asks his wife to prepare them for him in a sauce.

She agrees, provided he can get the other ingredients, none of which they have in the house: rice, dhall (lentils), spices, oil and a potato. Muni and his wife have not always been so poor. Once, when he considered himself prosperous, he had a flock of forty sheep and goats which he would lead out to graze every day. But life has not been kind to him or to his flocks: years of drought, a great famine, and an epidemic that ran through Muni’s flock have taken their toll.

And as a member of the lowest of India’s castes, Muni was never permitted to go to school or to learn a trade. Now he is reduced to two goats, too scrawny to sell or to eat. He and his wife have no children to help them in their old age, so their only income is from the odd jobs his wife occasionally takes on at the Big House. Muni has exhausted his credit at every shop in town, and today, when he asks a local shopman to give him the items his wife requires to cook the drumsticks, he is sent away humiliated

J Alfred Profrock and Waiting for Godot

Discuss whether Prufrock is or is not a “modern man,” in T. S. Eliot’s poem, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. ” With T. S. Eliot’s poem, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” it’s important to identify the concept of “modern” during the early 20th Century. The modernist literary movement addressed the… … idea of individualism, mistrust of institutions (government, religion), and the disbelief of any absolute truths. Things which were considered traditional were now viewed as outdated. By some, T. S. Eliot’s poem is considered the first of the modernist literary movement; it… … xplore[s] the peculiarly Modernist alienation of the individual in society to a point where internal emotional alienation occurs… Georg Simmel, a sociologist, summarizes societal concerns during this time: The deepest problems of modern life derive from the claim of the individual to preserve the autonomy and individuality of his existence in the face of overwhelming social forces, of historical heritage, of external culture, and of the technique of life. Eliot’s image of “a patient etherized” gives the reader a sense that as this man and his companion go out, they are like sheep, moving along passively as if they had been anesthetized.

The two pass through a dingy part of town with “cheap one-night hotels,” perhaps alluding to clandestine rendezvous—where things are done in secret, e. g. , meetings, conversations, etc. As the two continue, they enter a place where women are having discussions about sophisticated topics such as Michelangelo, and later we learn there is tea and talk of novels—modern women? Prufrock compares how he sees himself to how others might see him. He is uncertain as to how he should proceed: “Do I dare? ” Can he move forward in this unfamiliar territory or should he turn back?

The end of the poem reflects Prufrock’s feelings as he prepares to meet a woman for tea; the images of coffee spoons may hint that Prufrock has been in many of these situations before: cups of coffee over extremely awkward, socially painful conversations. Without getting over this discomfiture, Prufrock may be destined forever to be alienated from society and the company of a woman—a wife and marriage… a “modern” life. In this poem, I see in Prufrock a struggle between individualism and a sense of alienation. Some people are strong enough to be individuals and to fight against the tide of umanity to find their own unique place in the world. However, for the person that does not thrive being alone—who feels more comfortable with life in a “pre-modernist” society—the sense of loneliness must be overwhelming. I find that Prufrock is trying to walk the line between what society has become (where he is extremely uncomfortable) and the old world which was comfortable for him, but makes him feel like an outcast. One source notes: [Eliot’s] early poetry, including “Prufrock,” deals with spiritually exhausted people who exist in the impersonal modern city.

Prufrock seems spiritually exhausted. This “modern man” is only that because of the time in which he lives. He does not feel at ease in this “impersonal modern city” where people defy the norms of the past and look to isolation brought about by a new to be one’s own person and a “mistrust of [government and religion]. ” Prufrock is uncomfortable in trying to be a “modern” man. Prufrock is a representative character who cannot reconcile his thoughts and understanding with his feelings and will. In “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” by T. S.

Eliot, why is the speaker so confused? Regarding T. S. Eliot’s work in general, and “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” one source notes: His early poetry, including “Prufrock,” deals with spiritually exhausted people who exist in the impersonal modern city. When I read the poem, if the speaker is confused, I believe it is a result of fear: the fear of not fully living or feeling one’s life, and/or of challenging the norms of society. For instance, at the beginning of the poem, Eliot writes: Let us go then, you and I, When the evening is spread out against the sky

Like a patient etherized upon a table… One under the influence of anaesthetic cannot feel the world or be aware of what goes only around him. Perhaps what confuses the speaker is that people around him seem to be living meaningful lives —going through the motions—like the women who drink tea and read novels, who speak of famous artists —seemingly meaningful things: In the room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo. However, the speaker talks to his companion (“you”), comforting [I assume] her that there will be plenty of time… ut not for meaningful experiences, but to put on the face of acceptability: There will be time, there will be time To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet… How is it possible, then, that while they look to congregate with those they know, that they cannot seem to find something or someone of substance with which to spend their time? In the third full paragraph, the speaker lists things there will be time for; this list seems to echo the Biblical passage taken from Ecclesiastes 3:1, which begins: “To everything there is a season… And indeed there will be time For the yellow smoke… There will be time, there will be time To prepare a face… There will be time to murder… Time for you and time for me… And as the poem continues, we get the sense that this “going out” may not represent simply one night, but perhaps many nights—even a lifetime, as the signs of aging appear: Time to turn back and descend the stair, With a bald spot in the middle of my hair– [They will say: “How his hair is growing thin! “]

In that the two go out to mingle with others, and because Eliot wrote specifically about “spiritually exhausted people who exist in the impersonal modern city,” I can imagine that the confusion for the speaker is what path to follow. Do we follow the masses of these “spiritually exhausted people,” forever searching for meaning in an environment that doesn’t have the wherewithal to inspire because it is “impersonal” in its modern-context? Or do we find ourselves to be individualists that do not follow the masses, but “march to the beat of a different drummer? Do we defy convention: To wonder, “Do I dare? ” and, “Do I dare? “… Do I dare Disturb the universe? The speaker notes that he could be like Lazurus, to seemingly return from the “dead”—from a life of “spiritual exhaustion”—to tell his truth, to share what he has realized about life, and “disturb the universe. ” He alludes also to Hamlet, seeing himself not as a “procrastinator” but a man of action. The speaker may be confused about whether he wants to shake up the world around him by being different: what is the right way to live?

However, I get a sense from the poem that he is thinking things through here, and will ultimately have to speak his truth, regardless of how those around him feel. In “La Belle Dame Sans Merci,” how was the knight deceived by the lovely lady? If we examine the poem carefully we can see that the fairy-lady that the knight meets and is so taken by is responsible for deceiving the poor, unsuspecting knight by clearly leading him on and pretending to have more affection and love for him than she actually feels. Note what the following stanza reveals about her behaviour towards the knight: She loooked at me as she did love,

And made sweet moan. This is one example of the way in which the lady gave the knight expectations of her love and desire for him. Note the way that there is almost a sexual connotation in “made sweet moan” which, through its onomatopoeia, seems to capture the sexual desire and frisson between the pair. Of course, as the rest of the poem shows, this is just a deception designed to entrap the knight in the lady’s snare, which is evident by the fact that the knight is still wandering around, suffering from unrequited love, when nature itself is abandoning the scene.

In “La Belle Dame Sans Merci,” please give me the description of the knights of unfortunate conditions. I am not entirely sure whether I understand your question correctly. By asking about the “knights of unfortunate conditions,” are you refering to the other knights that the knight who tells us about his experience with the lady dreams about? These figures are seen by the knight as he falls asleep with his lady, and obviously there appearance foreshadows the impact that his love for the lady will have on him and also gives the reader an mportant warning about the dangers of being taken in and deceived by a femme fatale figure. Note how these figures are described in the poem: I saw pale kings, and princes too, Pale warriors, death-pale were they all: They cried–“La Belle Dame sans Merci Hath thee in thrall! ” I saw their starved lips in the gloam With horrid warning gaped wide, And I awoke, and found me here On the cold hill side. Note the way that these figures are described as being “pale” and “death-pale,” which should make us think of the way that the knight of the poem is described in the first stanza as “Alone and palely loitering. Not too the way that “their starved lips” are pictured as another sign of the distraction that they suffer. They are so focussed on love that it appears they have little appetite and are slowly wasting away. In spite of this timely warning, the knight has become yet another victim to La Belle Dame Sans Merci, and is suffering in the same way as a result from the sickness of unrequited love, as so many men have done before him. Who is Godot and who are the characters in Waiting for Godot? As the dramatis personae at the beginning of the text indicates, there are five characters seen on stage in Waiting for Godot.

Vladimir and Estragon are two clowns (in the colloquial sense of the word). They spend their days in idle banter waiting for a mysterious Godot — who neither man has ever actually met or seen, but whom both (at times) are convinced will be arriving at the tree on the corner of a road where they currently reside. Midway through the first act, a loudmouthed slave-driver named Pozzo arrives. Didi and Gogo mistakenly believe Pozzo to be Godot, but he soon assures them in no uncertain terms that this is not the case. In the second act, Pozzo returns and appears to have suffered a strange twist of fate.

Pozzo is flanked by Lucky, an elderly bag-carrier who appears at first to be deaf-mute and almost subhuman. Pozzo swears that Lucky taught him everything he knows, which confuses Didi and Gogo, and Lucky later launches into a nonsensical monologue, which only serves to further confuse the two travelers. The final character who appears onstage is “the boy,” an apparent messenger from Godot himself. The boy brings news to the men from the unseen Godot. Like Pozzo and Lucky, the boy appears once in each act of the play. Godot is never seen onstage.

His identity remains largely a mystery, both to the characters and to the audience. Some have suggested that the etymology of the character’s name indicates that he is, in fact, a “God”(ot) — while others have argued that the character is merely symbolic of an eternity spent waiting for any unseen reward. From the characters perspective, Godot has sent for them (or so they believe), and has promised to arrive at this predestined spot at this predestined time (but again, they are increasingly unsure of the validity of this information as the play unfolds).

What are the crises and complexities regarding the characters in Waiting for Godot (and how are they involved in their progress)? In Samuel Beckett’s play, Waiting for Godot, the crises come from the continued vigil two of the characters play while they wait for Godot, who (to the best of their knowledge) never shows up. The crises also arise in that Estragon and Vladimir, who live miserable lives seemingly wasting each day waiting for the myterious man who never appears to them. The following day, the start over again. … they are now homeless, debilitated, and often suicidal.

They often contemplate why they choose to live. They sped their days together and share their memories: perhaps each day is not as bad as each man thinks. However, if there is any doubt, Pozzo and Lucky arrive. If Estragon and Vladimir find themselves depressed, Pozzo’s messages are always fill with darkness and gloom—the “glass”is half-empty for them. Little hope is attached to them. The complexities of the characters rest with Estragon and Vladimir who seem to have little to live for, but who manage to return to the same spot each day to find something to hope and wish for: Godot.

On the other hand, Pozzo and Lucky rob others of the possibility of optimism and hope. Pozzo is unkind to Lucky, but Lucky will not leave him. He is so attached to the nasty Pozzo, that Lucky attacks others rather than be separated from Pozzo. As time goes on, Pozzo and Lucky deteriorate until Pozzo is blind and Lucky is mute. While Estragon and Vladimir believe they have missed Godot each day, perhaps in life’s small blessings—as well as their dedication to each other, even as they suffer—they have the ability to  make a good things happen.

They are still poor monetarily, but they are in better shape than Pozzo and Lucky. Perhaps “Godot” is God, and that while they are faithful in waiting, perhaps they never look to what surround them each day. For Godot (God) may have been with them all along, and all they needed to do was open their eyes, see blessings around them and be thankful for that they have. how is waiting significant for them? The waiting is symbolic, or metaphorical. They are just whittling away their lives. However while they wait, they are interacting with each other and with a few other brief characters.

The meaning of life is that there is none. Life is just life! Describe Arms and The Man as a modern play? Arms and the Man can be described as a modern play, even though it was first produced in 1894 (and followed the Naturalistic characteristics Shaw used in writing), by looking at the themes focused upon in the play. One theme highlighted in the play is the romanticism of love. regardless of what era you live in, romantic love is always prevalent. Many people have been charged with falling for the wrong person. This idea has traversed time.

Another theme which could be recognized as a modern theme is class discrimination. As forward thinking as ones society believes it to be, class discrimination is still prevalent. It seems that people have always, and will always, look down on those they deem below them. Finally, the theme of idealism verses realism has been a topic upon the minds of even the greatest people for centuries. Literary and artistic movements have developed around these ideals and still bring about great conversations. What is the subject matter ; plot of Waiting for Godot?

In Waiting for Godot, Vladimir and Estragon discuss how they are waiting for someone named Godot who never arrives. They know that they should wait by the tree, but are not entirely sure if they have the right tree. Time is presented surreally in the play, with a sense that the scene of waiting is repeated infintely in a worlld in which time and place are constructed in the minds of the characters rather than as external objective realities. The characters do not really know who Godot is and might not recognize Godot if they see him.

A boy is used as a messenger to inform the characters that Godot will not appear “today” but may appear “tomorrow. ” Two other characters, the master Pozzo and the slave Lucky, enter in the second act and are initially mistaken for Godot. Although Pozzo is in theory the master, he (in a parody of Hegel) is increasingly shown to be dependent on his slave Lucky. Godot symbolizes the God of Messianic religion, who is expected at some time in the futuire as the salvation of the characters, but never actually arrives.

Lucky, as a thinker, attempts metaphysical knowledge of God, but his speech fades to nonsense. Vladimir and Estragonwait by the tree (the tree of the Gareden of Eden which is typologically the cross) and discuss religious and other themes, but don’t actually understand what they are waiting for or why. Like many of Beckett’s plays, this is a deeply pessimistic portrait of the futility of human existence, and the failure of Messianic religion to save humanity from an absurd and indifferent universe. Do they meet God?

There is no mention of God specifically in the play Waiting for Godot. Research tells us that Samuel Beckett (the author) had already dismissed the existence of God in the world when he wrote this play. One writer explains that Godot may refer in some sense to “God,” while… Less Francophile readings have insisted it should scan as ‘Go. dot’, a reference to the mental and physical movement that must result from Existential inertia. In this case, “God” is completely lost, and this reference would signify that there is no place in the play for “God. However, it is ironic to note that Beckett was (strangely) suspicious of words—that they could not be controlled… implying that Beckett had a desire to do just that (and what his audience thought along with that, perhaps). [Beckett] eventually dismissed language itself as a reliable source of security. Ironically, this man of words ultimately mistrusted them. He knew that the word could never be counted on to convey meaning precisely and that linguistic meaning was always an approximation. One of the “natural beauties” of literature (thank God… or Godot…? is that no one can control what a reader thinks. In a search for understanding of Beckett’s puzzling play, we are able to decide whether God is there or not. The eNotes summary on themes in the play states: [Vladimir and Estragon] live without amenities, find joy in the smallest of victories, and are ultimately quite serious about their vague responsibility to wait for this mysterious figure who may or may not come… Perhaps the sadness of the story, which can be as true for you and I as readers, as Beckett’s perceptions were to him, is that God was there all the time—they just never noticed Him.

The “smallest victories” the men experience in their desolation may be God’s way of trying to speak to them, but they listen instead to the hopeless words of Pozzo: The tears of the world are a constant quantity. For each one who begins to weep, somewhere else another stops. When Pozzo and Lucky leave, a boy arrives and says that Godot won’t come today, but will tomorrow. The men continue into the second act, doing much the same as they had in the first: waiting. Pozzo and Lucky return: Pozzo is blind and Lucky is mute. And still nothing changes for Vladimir and Estragon.

After all this time has passed, the boy arrives again and tells them they must wait until tomorrow for Godot. Is the boy symbolic of an angel? Is he telling them that God will not be there that day because the men do not believe? Is the boy, however, offering hope that they can find God tomorrow if they wish to? Beckett may have believed there was no God, but he cannot control how an audience perceives his play. He may want the reader to believe that the waiting of the men is pointless and that God is an illusion. However, it is quite possible to believe that the illusion is simply that there is nothing around them in the first place.

Sometimes we sit and fail to notice our surroundings. All of a sudden a bird’s call or the buzzing of a bee may attract our attention to what is right there in front of us: the miraculous palette of nature’s colors and creations. Vladimir and Estragon don’t find God, but it may be from the lack of trying: for failing to open their eyes and see him in the smallest things, believing the pessimistic ravings of Pozzo, and the foolishness of Lucky (while he may still speak). Describe the symbolic meaning of waiting in the drama Waiting for Godot?

I think that one of the basic elements that helps to bring out the symbolic meaning of waiting is the condition of paralysis that results as a part of it. The characters who “wait” demonstrate a type of paralysis that precludes them from actually being able to take action when it might be warranted. At the end, when it is present that Godot is not coming, Vladimir and Estragon can only wait. It is the only thing they know how to do. While they go through it together, they have lost the ability to take action. It is here where the full force of the symbolic meaning of waiting is brought out.

Beckett draws out a human condition whereby the true problem of waiting is one where individuals become accustomed to it, no longer understanding what it means to take action. This human  condition becomes fully evident when it is evident that the only thing the characters in the drama know how to do is wait. Even when it is evident that nothing is going to be gained from waiting, the sense of paralysis that results from waiting is one whereby individuals lose the understanding and the capacity to take action. It is here where the true meaning of waiting can be fully seen.

Report Opera

OPERATIVE REPORT Patient Name: Putul Barua Patient ID: 135799 Room No. : CCU-4 Date of Surgery: 01/08/2011 Admitting Physician: Simon Williams, MD, Pulmonology Surgeon: Simon Williams, MD, Pulmonology Preoperative Diagnosis: Recent onset hemoptysis, history of tuberculosis. Postoperative Diagnosis: No tuberculosis lesion seen. Name of Procedure: Bronchoscopy Specimens Removed: Blood clots. INDICATIONS: Mr. Barua requires Bronchoscopy, because of recent onset hemoptysis and a remote history of tuberculosis. PROCEDURE: The patient was routinely pre-medicated with 25mg of Demerol, with 2mg of Versed also used.

About 4mL of 4% Xylocaine was used during the procedure. The glottis, epiglottis, pseudocords, and cords were normal. Upper trachea was normal. Lower trachea and carina were normal. A few small, scattered thrombi present were easily suctioned. The right upper lobe was observed. No endobronchial lesion was detected. The right lower lobe and right middle lobe were free of endobronchial lesions. The left side was entered, the left upper and lower lobe was investigated with no endobronchial lesions detected. We obtain no brushings, because of patients INR and the fact that he became hypoxic very quickly.

We had to do the procedure very quickly and discontinue it as soon as possible. No further significant hypoxia was observed. (Continued) OPERATIVE REPORT Patient Name: Putul Barua Patient ID: 135799 Date of Surgery: 01-08-2011 Page 2 The lowest level of hypoxia observed was about 86%, which was immediately reversed with an increase in oxygen therapy. DIAGNOSIS: Evidence of old hemorrhage. No new lesions seen. Recommend close follow up. ____________________________ Simon Williams, MD, Pulmonology SM:tc D:01/08/2011 T:01/08/2011

Dutch Under Nazi Occupation

Natalia Szlarb Introduction to Dutch Studies 27. 04. 2011 British English Accommodation, Co-operation or Collaboration? Dutch population under the German Occupation The German occupation in the Netherlands has been, and probably will be the cause of the heated debate among historians, politicians or Dutch citizens themselves for quite a long time. The question which triggers the emotions is how the Dutch people acted during the occupation. One the most influential historians on this matter, De Jong, one of the first faced the myth of an intransigent people standing up to the terror of occupier. 1] In the evolution of this view, there is certain consensus reached by most of the historians; most of the Dutch people tried to adopt “accommodation” tactic during the occupation. The essay focuses rather on the daily aspects of average Dutchman to understand sociology behind it; it examines the specific Dutch attitude of “accommodation” during German occupation, the origins and the consequences. 1. Prewar Dutch-German relations Contrary to common belief, a far from insignificant rapprochement between the Dutch and the Nazi Germany had existed during the interwar periods.

The origins could be traced in some way similar ideological and economical motives i. e. a virulent anti-communism that had deeply infiltrated in the Dutch elites. In 1917, after the collapse of tsardom, the Bolsheviks annulled all foreign debts. Although it was not the Dutch Government that suffered, but mostly private individuals who had invested heavily in the empire of the Tsar. In those days the amount of 1 billion guilders was at stake which was even more than the total sum of Dutch annual expenditure. 2] The common hatred of Communists proved to be somehow common ground for Dutch and Germans before the war. The pro-German attitude in the Netherlands among authorities and elites was also confirmed by the German diplomat Wolfgang zu Putlitz, who spent four years in England, and was moved to take the new post as the Counselor in the Hague. In his memories he writes “In England I had never come across officials in leading agencies who expressed their sympathy for the new Germanism as enthusiastically as in the Netherlands […] The National Socialists of Mr.

Mussert[3] had supporters in almost all ministers and even among the royal household […] There Chiefs of Police who, summarily, at one signal from Butting[4] deported German emigrants at any time of day or night, and handed them to Gestapo […] I have never heard that the Dutch government asked for a single document concerning such arbitrary acts, which were known to us by the dozen”[5]. In the prewar phase, the Netherlands seemed to have accepted the rise of “radical nationalism” in the neighboring country, and as long as it has not affected Netherlands, Dutch population stayed lenient towards more and more extreme German changes[6].

The evidence of closer relations with the Nazi Germany is undeniable. Among the Dutch authorities, particularly among the staff of police, there were few who had offered their service to the Nazis already before the war. In Amsterdam for example, the police commissioner, Broekhoff, personally informed in 1935 to the Gestapo officials in Berlin that the Dutch Minister of Defence would cooperate against “kommunistische and marxistische Umtriebe” (communist and Marxist machinastions).

With the pen-name “David” Broekhoff took care of exchange of data due to which 250 German “illegals” who fled to the Netherlands immediately were arrested after the occupation in 1940. [7] The chief commissioner of police in Rotterdam, Mr. L. Eintoven, together with 17 other Dutch police officers considered to be “deutschfriendlich” in the list written by Gestapo. 2. Dutch Response and Attitude to the Occupation When the Nazi Germany invaded Poland on the 1st September 1939, few days later Britain and France in reply declared war on Germany.

Caring in mind benefits of a peace in the country during the First World War, the Netherlands once again remained neutral. However, this did not stop Germany to invade the Netherlands on 10th May 1940. Queen Wilhelmina together with members of her family and the Dutch government escaped and settled in London. After the Luftwaffe bombing completely destroying the city of Rotterdam, the country surrendered on 15th May 1940. [8]The invasion of the Netherlands took only 5 days. The moderately uneventful transition had few outcomes.

First, even though the Dutch people were surprised and demoralized by the unforeseen loss, they could relax a bit. Many deceived themselves that the Nazi occupation would not entail any great hardship or the expected atrocities. Secondly, Dutch culture and convention has been always stressed the importance of obedience to the law. These two factors together led many to believe that all they needed to do was safely survive the German occupation. Many hoped that the war would be short-lived and thus, through a process of cooperation, the effect of Nazi occupation on the Dutch would be minor.

Hitler did not aim to alienate the Dutch nation, that he actually considered to be of “superior” Germanic breeding. As consequence of the Dutch religious stratification, the Dutch people could be qualified as almost 100 percent Aryan. Hitler’s ultimate ambition was to make the Netherlands a ingredient of Germany following the war. Through incorporation of the Netherlands to Germany, Hitler intended to further infuse the new Reich with the Aryan ideal. With this aim in mind, the transition to Nazi rule in the Netherlands was not as abrupt and dramatic.

In comparison for example to Poland whose “Slavic” population recognized as being interior was treated with aggression and brutality, that was definitely not the case in the Netherlands. This important aspect to remember while explaining relatively small resistance in the Netherlands; the worse treatment of civil population the higher chance that more people will join resistance, whereas if it is just “mild” occupation, average man will hesitate much more. Nonetheless, it should not be overlooked that only very small percentage of 1,5% of the population supported the Dutch Nazi Movement. 9] Furthermore, as from summer 1940, even before battle of Britain had been won by RAF, the majority of Dutch population was convinced that Germany would lose the war, and the Dutch independence would be restored,[10] it is just the matter of the accommodation to this temporary situation. In the meantime this attitude was made clear by number of small acts, which Louis de Jong describes as “symbolic resistance”. [11] Stamps, for example were affixed to the left-hand corner of envelopes because, people still believed that the right-hand corner belonged to the stamps with the picture of queen Wilhelmina, who was in exile in London. 12] Another example was simple greeting “hallo”, which from the summer 1940 onwards was widely regarded as the abbreviation of the sentence “Hang alle landverraders op” which meant “Hang all traitors”. [13] On Prince Bernard’s birthday, many people took to wearing orange carnations – orange being the symbol of the Dutch ruling family. In 1943, when students were obliagted to sign an loyalty oath of to the occupying pwer, over 85% p ercent refused to sign and thousands went into hiding. The role of the Dutch railway is quite controversial one.

Minister of Transport and Energy, I. van Schaik argued in front of the railway personnel in September 1945 “I understand your struggle in your hearts, when our boys were moved across border by your trains, or, even worse, to the concentration camps. Your work served the welfare of the Dutch people but was to the advantage of the enemy at the same time”. [14] Jan Herman Brinks argues that in other words it basically mean that during the war the economic interests could not have been risked even when the “lesser” implied that the Jewish Dutch were sent to their deaths. 15] Although Brinks perceives lack of any general strike[16] as another evidence in placing the burden of Dutch Jews on Dutch population, it has to be remembered that the Netherlands unique economy is largely based on trading, hence transport is essential. The truth is, that even tough general strike might have proved to be disastrous for the Dutch economy, there were no examples of sabotage of specific railways or trains which were prepared for the deportation and transport of Jews. This “silent resistance” was quite unique for the Netherlands. . Dutch Answer to the Jewish Question under the Occupation One central question in Dutch historiography is why such a high percentage of Jews from the Netherlands died in the Holocaust. At the time of German occupation, the Jewish population in the Netherlands amounted to about 140 000 people (over a half lived in Amsterdam), among them some 25,000 German-Jewish refugees that had fled Germany in the 1930s. Of this number 110 000 were killed. This represents over 75% of Holland’s Jews perished at the hands of the Nazis. 17] This is the largest percentage of Jews that died from a particular country. Importance of this facet is very often stressed by some historians; some believe overall very low rate survival rate should be explained in context Dutch-German collaboration, some believe the Netherlands was just very unfortunate place to be for someone who would want to flee or hide. It should be admitted that both approaches carry some merits. The registration of births, deaths, marriages introduced already by Napoleon proved to have tremendous value for Nazis.

Since it recorded data not only as birth and name, but also address and religion to was very easy to track down all the Jews. Attempts at escape from the Netherlands under Nazi control were almost impossible. First, countries bordering the Netherlands were under German occupation or control as well. Therefore, flight through the Dutch border meant entrance into another Nazi controlled country. Secondly, the west and north borders of the Netherlands consist of North Sea coastline. Safe passage through German carefully patrolled waters was very dangerous.

Additionally, the Netherlands in 1940 was a densely populated country. Yet, it was home for over nine million individuals. The flat land was providing little forestation or mountain terrain good for partisan activity or hiding. [18] Culturally, Dutch society was stratified largely on the basis of religion. Thus, close bonds or friendships between Jews and Christians were unpopular in occupied Holland. This made it hard for Jews to go hiding within the homes of Gentile neighbors, individuals that they did not know.

For those Jews that had Christian friends, to accept place in their homes carried with it the knowledge that discovery placed their friend’s lives into jeopardy. The sad facts are, that most Jewish Dutch, in spite of sympathy strike in February in 1941,[19] received very little support form non-Jewish population and many Jews were also betrayed by the Dutch. Anne Frank, who is often depicted as a moral standard bearer of the nation in the myth of resistance against the Germans, was after all also betrayed by the Dutch.

Aid from individuals such as Gertude Wijmuller- Meijer who helped hundreds of Jewish children escape from Germany, was flatly condemned by the Dutch authorities. In the press release from the Dutch Government, few days after Kristallnacht we can read “The behavior of Dutch who transfer Jewish children by car or by train to the Netherlands has to be disapproved of. Such a disorderly arrival of fugitives naturally cannot be tolerated. Only an orderly flow is permissible and that to a very limited extent”[20]

Moreover, after the Royal family fled the Netherlands, the Dutch civil service actively participated in the preparations for the elimination of Dutch Jews. The Dutch police was the one who arrested the Jews, and it was Dutch field security officers that guarded Jews in the Westerbork camp, from which they were moved to death by Dutch railway personnel. 4. Nation of heroes? In 1944, Queen Wilhelmina, who wholly identified with the Dutch underground, in her broadcast speeches characterized the Dutch people as ‘a nation of heroes. Not a single underground paper felt compelled to accept this qualification. They knew more, and the knew better. Most people, with whatever anti-German feelings they had , tried to protect themselves, their families, and their property, adapting themselves to the increasingly complicated circumstances of daily life. It was tiny minority that proved willing to accept great personal risks and to put everything, even life itself, at stake. Nations of heroes did not exist.

It is enough to say that individual Dutch person who had to face very often heart-breaking alternatives such as working for or in Germany or to go into hiding, to offer shelter to Jews, or to join resistance group, came to decision with some mixture of heroism, cowardice and common sense that most people would display in similar conditions. Because each example of “accommodation” has to be judged on its own merits, it is impossible to make generalized conclusions with the respect to the category of collaboration or resistance.

But there existed among the Dutch thousands of ordinary human beings, men and women, who did save the country’s soul. Bibliography Hirschfeld Gerhard, Nazi Rule and Dutch Collaboartion, The Netherlands under German Occupation, Hamburg 1988 Jong Louis, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990 Warmbrunn, The Dutch under German Occupation 1940-45. Stanford University Press, 1963 Brinks Jan Herman, The Dutch, the Germans and the Jews. Abridged version of this article in: History Today, Vol 49 (6), June 1999 Woolf, Linda M. Survival and Resistance: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation, New York, 2000 Hamilton, Leslie Ann, “Dutch Resistance to the Nazis during World War Two” (2003). University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects. http://trace. tennessee. edu/utk_chanhonoproj/652 ———————– [1] Jong Louis, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990 [2] Zee, C. “To prevent worse. The Preparation and execution of the destruction of Dutch Jewry during the Second World War” Amsterdam, 1997, p. 40 [3] Leader of the Dutch Nazis 4] Attache at the German embassy [5] Putlizt zu, Wolfgang, “In Evening Dress among the Brownshirts. Memories of a German Diplomat” The Hague, 1964, p. 210 [6] Brinks Jan Herman, The Dutch, the Germans and the Jews. Abridged version of this article in: History Today, Vol 49 (6), June 1999 [7] Warmbrunn, The Dutch under German Occupation 1940-45. Stanford University Press, 1963 [8] Hamilton, Leslie Ann, “Dutch Resistance to the Nazis during World War Two” (2003). University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects. http://trace. tennessee. edu/utk_chanhonoproj/652 9] Jong Louis, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990 [10] Warmbrunn, The Dutch under German Occupation 1940-45. Stanford University Press, 1963 [11] Jong Louis, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990 [12] Warmbrunn, The Dutch under German Occupation 1940-45. Stanford University Press, 1963 [13] Jong Louis, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990 [14] Brinks Jan Herman, The Dutch, the Germans and the Jews. Abridged version of this article in: History Today, Vol 49 (6), June 1999 [15] Brinks Jan Herman, The Dutch, the Germans and the Jews.

Abridged version of this article in: History Today, Vol 49 (6), June 1999 [16] This was the case until Dutch government’s appeal for a railway strike starting September 1944 to further the Allied liberation efforts [17] Hirschfeld Gerhard, Nazi Rule and Dutch Collaboartion, The Netherlands under German Occupation, Hamburg 1988 [18] Jong Louis, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990 [19] Jong Louis, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990 [20] Brinks Jan Herman, The Dutch, the Germans and the Jews. Abridged version of this article in: History Today, Vol 49 (6), June 1999